FARs



Title 14: Aeronautics and Space


PART 43—MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION


Contents
§43.1   Applicability.
§43.2   Records of overhaul and rebuilding.
§43.3   Persons authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations.
§43.5   Approval for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
§43.7   Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
§43.9   Content, form, and disposition of maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration records (except inspections performed in accordance with part 91, part 125, §135.411(a)(1), and §135.419 of this chapter).
§43.10   Disposition of life-limited aircraft parts.
§43.11   Content, form, and disposition of records for inspections conducted under parts 91 and 125 and §§135.411(a)(1) and 135.419 of this chapter.
§43.12   Maintenance records: Falsification, reproduction, or alteration.
§43.13   Performance rules (general).
§43.15   Additional performance rules for inspections.
§43.16   Airworthiness limitations.
§43.17   Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations performed on U.S. aeronautical products by certain Canadian persons.
Appendix A to Part 43—Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance
Appendix B to Part 43—Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations
Appendix C to Part 43 [Reserved]
Appendix D to Part 43—Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and 100-Hour Inspections
Appendix E to Part 43—Altimeter System Test and Inspection
Appendix F to Part 43—ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

 

 

 

e-CFR data is current as of September 13, 2017

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter D → Part 61


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Title 14: Aeronautics and Space


PART 61—CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS


Contents
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 73—Robinson R-22/R-44 Special Training and Experience Requirements
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2—Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who are Assigned Outside the United States in Support of U.S. Armed Forces Operations

Subpart A—General

§61.1   Applicability and definitions.
§61.2   Exercise of Privilege.
§61.3   Requirement for certificates, ratings, and authorizations.
§61.4   Qualification and approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.
§61.5   Certificates and ratings issued under this part.
§61.7   Obsolete certificates and ratings.
§61.8   Inapplicability of unmanned aircraft operations.
§61.9   [Reserved]
§61.11   Expired pilot certificates and re-issuance.
§61.13   Issuance of airman certificates, ratings, and authorizations.
§61.14   [Reserved]
§61.15   Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.
§61.16   Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.
§61.17   Temporary certificate.
§61.18   Security disqualification.
§61.19   Duration of pilot and instructor certificates and privileges.
§61.21   Duration of a Category II and a Category III pilot authorization (for other than part 121 and part 135 use).
§61.23   Medical certificates: Requirement and duration.
§61.25   Change of name.
§61.27   Voluntary surrender or exchange of certificate.
§61.29   Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.
§61.31   Type rating requirements, additional training, and authorization requirements.
§61.33   Tests: General procedure.
§61.35   Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing grades.
§61.37   Knowledge tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct.
§61.39   Prerequisites for practical tests.
§61.41   Flight training received from flight instructors not certificated by the FAA.
§61.43   Practical tests: General procedures.
§61.45   Practical tests: Required aircraft and equipment.
§61.47   Status of an examiner who is authorized by the Administrator to conduct practical tests.
§61.49   Retesting after failure.
§61.51   Pilot logbooks.
§61.52   Use of aeronautical experience obtained in ultralight vehicles.
§61.53   Prohibition on operations during medical deficiency.
§61.55   Second-in-command qualifications.
§61.56   Flight review.
§61.57   Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.
§61.58   Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of an aircraft that requires more than one pilot flight crewmember or is turbojet-powered.
§61.59   Falsification, reproduction, or alteration of applications, certificates, logbooks, reports, or records.
§61.60   Change of address.

Subpart B—Aircraft Ratings and Pilot Authorizations

§61.61   Applicability.
§61.63   Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level).
§61.64   Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.
§61.65   Instrument rating requirements.
§61.66   Enhanced Flight Vision System Pilot Requirements.
§61.67   Category II pilot authorization requirements.
§61.68   Category III pilot authorization requirements.
§61.69   Glider and unpowered ultralight vehicle towing: Experience and training requirements.
§61.71   Graduates of an approved training program other than under this part: Special rules.
§61.73   Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.
§61.75   Private pilot certificate issued on the basis of a foreign pilot license.
§61.77   Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen.

Subpart C—Student Pilots

§61.81   Applicability.
§61.83   Eligibility requirements for student pilots.
§61.85   Application.
§61.87   Solo requirements for student pilots.
§61.89   General limitations.
§61.91   [Reserved]
§61.93   Solo cross-country flight requirements.
§61.94   Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at airports within, and in airspace located within, Class B, C, and D airspace, or at airports with an operational control tower in other airspace.
§61.95   Operations in Class B airspace and at airports located within Class B airspace.

Subpart D—Recreational Pilots

§61.96   Applicability and eligibility requirements: General.
§61.97   Aeronautical knowledge.
§61.98   Flight proficiency.
§61.99   Aeronautical experience.
§61.100   Pilots based on small islands.
§61.101   Recreational pilot privileges and limitations.

Subpart E—Private Pilots

§61.102   Applicability.
§61.103   Eligibility requirements: General.
§61.105   Aeronautical knowledge.
§61.107   Flight proficiency.
§61.109   Aeronautical experience.
§61.110   Night flying exceptions.
§61.111   Cross-country flights: Pilots based on small islands.
§61.113   Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command.
§61.115   Balloon rating: Limitations.
§61.117   Private pilot privileges and limitations: Second in command of aircraft requiring more than one pilot.
§§61.118-61.120   [Reserved]

Subpart F—Commercial Pilots

§61.121   Applicability.
§61.123   Eligibility requirements: General.
§61.125   Aeronautical knowledge.
§61.127   Flight proficiency.
§61.129   Aeronautical experience.
§61.131   Exceptions to the night flying requirements.
§61.133   Commercial pilot privileges and limitations.
§§61.135-61.141   [Reserved]

Subpart G—Airline Transport Pilots

§61.151   Applicability.
§61.153   Eligibility requirements: General.
§61.155   Aeronautical knowledge.
§61.156   Training requirements: Airplane category—multiengine class rating or airplane type rating concurrently with airline transport pilot certificate.
§61.157   Flight proficiency.
§61.158   [Reserved]
§61.159   Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.
§61.160   Aeronautical experience—airplane category restricted privileges.
§61.161   Aeronautical experience: Rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating.
§61.163   Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.
§61.165   Additional aircraft category and class ratings.
§61.167   Airline transport pilot privileges and limitations.
§61.169   Letters of authorization for institutions of higher education.
§§61.170-69.171   [Reserved]

Subpart H—Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating

§61.181   Applicability.
§61.183   Eligibility requirements.
§61.185   Aeronautical knowledge.
§61.187   Flight proficiency.
§61.189   Flight instructor records.
§61.191   Additional flight instructor ratings.
§61.193   Flight instructor privileges.
§61.195   Flight instructor limitations and qualifications.
§61.197   Renewal requirements for flight instructor certification.
§61.199   Reinstatement requirements of an expired flight instructor certificate.
§61.201   [Reserved]

Subpart I—Ground Instructors

§61.211   Applicability.
§61.213   Eligibility requirements.
§61.215   Ground instructor privileges.
§61.217   Recent experience requirements.

Subpart J—Sport Pilots

§61.301   What is the purpose of this subpart and to whom does it apply?
§61.303   If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this subpart must I comply with?
§61.305   What are the age and language requirements for a sport pilot certificate?
§61.307   What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?
§61.309   What aeronautical knowledge must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate?
§61.311   What flight proficiency requirements must I meet to apply for a sport pilot certificate?
§61.313   What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate?
§61.315   What are the privileges and limits of my sport pilot certificate?
§61.317   Is my sport pilot certificate issued with aircraft category and class ratings?
§61.319   [Reserved]
§61.321   How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?
§61.323   [Reserved]
§61.325   How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and D airspace, or in other airspace with an airport having an operational control tower?
§61.327   Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH?

Subpart K—Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating

§61.401   What is the purpose of this subpart?
§61.403   What are the age, language, and pilot certificate requirements for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?
§61.405   What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?
§61.407   What aeronautical knowledge must I have to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?
§61.409   What flight proficiency requirements must I meet to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?
§61.411   What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?
§61.413   What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?
§61.415   What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?
§61.417   Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class ratings?
§61.419   How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?
§61.421   May I give myself an endorsement?
§61.423   What are the recordkeeping requirements for a flight instructor with a sport pilot rating?
§61.425   How do I renew my flight instructor certificate?
§61.427   What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires?
§61.429   May I exercise the privileges of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating if I hold a flight instructor certificate with another rating?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

e-CFR data is current as of September 13, 2017

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter F → Part 91


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Title 14: Aeronautics and Space


PART 91—GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES


Contents
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 60—Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 79—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97—Special Operating Rules for the Conduct of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) in Alaska
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104—Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108—Mitsubishi MU-2B Series Special Training, Experience, and Operating Requirements

Subpart A—General

§91.1   Applicability.
§91.3   Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command.
§91.5   Pilot in command of aircraft requiring more than one required pilot.
§91.7   Civil aircraft airworthiness.
§91.9   Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.
§91.11   Prohibition on interference with crewmembers.
§91.13   Careless or reckless operation.
§91.15   Dropping objects.
§91.17   Alcohol or drugs.
§91.19   Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.
§91.21   Portable electronic devices.
§91.23   Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional sales contracts.
§91.25   Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.
§§91.27-91.99   [Reserved]

Subpart B—Flight Rules

General

§91.101   Applicability.
§91.103   Preflight action.
§91.105   Flight crewmembers at stations.
§91.107   Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.
§91.109   Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.
§91.111   Operating near other aircraft.
§91.113   Right-of-way rules: Except water operations.
§91.115   Right-of-way rules: Water operations.
§91.117   Aircraft speed.
§91.119   Minimum safe altitudes: General.
§91.121   Altimeter settings.
§91.123   Compliance with ATC clearances and instructions.
§91.125   ATC light signals.
§91.126   Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class G airspace.
§91.127   Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class E airspace.
§91.129   Operations in Class D airspace.
§91.130   Operations in Class C airspace.
§91.131   Operations in Class B airspace.
§91.133   Restricted and prohibited areas.
§91.135   Operations in Class A airspace.
§91.137   Temporary flight restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas.
§91.138   Temporary flight restrictions in national disaster areas in the State of Hawaii.
§91.139   Emergency air traffic rules.
§91.141   Flight restrictions in the proximity of the Presidential and other parties.
§91.143   Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.
§91.144   Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.
§91.145   Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting events.
§91.146   Passenger-carrying flights for the benefit of a charitable, nonprofit, or community event.
§91.147   Passenger carrying flights for compensation or hire.
§§91.148-91.149   [Reserved]

Visual Flight Rules

§91.151   Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.
§91.153   VFR flight plan: Information required.
§91.155   Basic VFR weather minimums.
§91.157   Special VFR weather minimums.
§91.159   VFR cruising altitude or flight level.
§91.161   Special awareness training required for pilots flying under visual flight rules within a 60-nautical mile radius of the Washington, DC VOR/DME.
§§91.162-91.165   [Reserved]

Instrument Flight Rules

§91.167   Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions.
§91.169   IFR flight plan: Information required.
§91.171   VOR equipment check for IFR operations.
§91.173   ATC clearance and flight plan required.
§91.175   Takeoff and landing under IFR.
§91.176   Straight-in landing operations below DA/DH or MDA using an enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) under IFR.
§91.177   Minimum altitudes for IFR operations.
§91.179   IFR cruising altitude or flight level.
§91.180   Operations within airspace designated as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum airspace.
§91.181   Course to be flown.
§91.183   IFR communications.
§91.185   IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure.
§91.187   Operation under IFR in controlled airspace: Malfunction reports.
§91.189   Category II and III operations: General operating rules.
§91.191   Category II and Category III manual.
§91.193   Certificate of authorization for certain Category II operations.
§§91.195-91.199   [Reserved]

Subpart C—Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements

§91.201   [Reserved]
§91.203   Civil aircraft: Certifications required.
§91.205   Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements.
§91.207   Emergency locator transmitters.
§91.209   Aircraft lights.
§91.211   Supplemental oxygen.
§91.213   Inoperative instruments and equipment.
§91.215   ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and use.
§91.217   Data correspondence between automatically reported pressure altitude data and the pilot's altitude reference.
§91.219   Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes.
§91.221   Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.
§91.223   Terrain awareness and warning system.
§91.225   Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment and use.
§91.227   Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment performance requirements.
§§91.228-91.299   [Reserved]

Subpart D—Special Flight Operations

§91.301   [Reserved]
§91.303   Aerobatic flight.
§91.305   Flight test areas.
§91.307   Parachutes and parachuting.
§91.309   Towing: Gliders and unpowered ultralight vehicles.
§91.311   Towing: Other than under §91.309.
§91.313   Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.
§91.315   Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.
§91.317   Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.
§91.319   Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.
§91.321   Carriage of candidates in elections.
§91.323   Increased maximum certificated weights for certain airplanes operated in Alaska.
§91.325   Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.
§91.327   Aircraft having a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations.
§§91.328-91.399   [Reserved]

Subpart E—Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations

§91.401   Applicability.
§91.403   General.
§91.405   Maintenance required.
§91.407   Operation after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
§91.409   Inspections.
§91.410   [Reserved]
§91.411   Altimeter system and altitude reporting equipment tests and inspections.
§91.413   ATC transponder tests and inspections.
§91.415   Changes to aircraft inspection programs.
§91.417   Maintenance records.
§91.419   Transfer of maintenance records.
§91.421   Rebuilt engine maintenance records.
§§91.423-91.499   [Reserved]

Subpart F—Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft

§91.501   Applicability.
§91.503   Flying equipment and operating information.
§91.505   Familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment.
§91.507   Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.
§91.509   Survival equipment for overwater operations.
§91.511   Communication and navigation equipment for overwater operations.
§91.513   Emergency equipment.
§91.515   Flight altitude rules.
§91.517   Passenger information.
§91.519   Passenger briefing.
§91.521   Shoulder harness.
§91.523   Carry-on baggage.
§91.525   Carriage of cargo.
§91.527   Operating in icing conditions.
§91.529   Flight engineer requirements.
§91.531   Second in command requirements.
§91.533   Flight attendant requirements.
§91.535   Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing.
§§91.536-91.599   [Reserved]

Subpart G—Additional Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft

§91.601   Applicability.
§91.603   Aural speed warning device.
§91.605   Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.
§91.607   Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire.
§91.609   Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.
§91.611   Authorization for ferry flight with one engine inoperative.
§91.613   Materials for compartment interiors.
§§91.615-91.699   [Reserved]

Subpart H—Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft

§91.701   Applicability.
§91.702   Persons on board.
§91.703   Operations of civil aircraft of U.S. registry outside of the United States.
§91.705   Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.
§91.706   Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace.
§91.707   Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States.
§91.709   Operations to Cuba.
§91.711   Special rules for foreign civil aircraft.
§91.713   Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.
§91.715   Special flight authorizations for foreign civil aircraft.
§§91.717-91.799   [Reserved]

Subpart I—Operating Noise Limits

§91.801   Applicability: Relation to part 36.
§91.803   Part 125 operators: Designation of applicable regulations.
§91.805   Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes.
§§91.807-91.813   [Reserved]
§91.815   Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.
§91.817   Civil aircraft sonic boom.
§91.819   Civil supersonic airplanes that do not comply with part 36.
§91.821   Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.
§§91.823-91.849   [Reserved]
§91.851   Definitions.
§91.853   Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.
§91.855   Entry and nonaddition rule.
§91.857   Stage 2 operations outside of the 48 contiguous United States.
§91.858   Special flight authorizations for non-revenue Stage 2 operations.
§91.859   Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.
§91.861   Base level.
§91.863   Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base level.
§91.865   Phased compliance for operators with base level.
§91.867   Phased compliance for new entrants.
§91.869   Carry-forward compliance.
§91.871   Waivers from interim compliance requirements.
§91.873   Waivers from final compliance.
§91.875   Annual progress reports.
§91.877   Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.
§§91.879-91.880   [Reserved]
§91.881   Final compliance: Civil subsonic jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less.
§91.883   Special flight authorizations for jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less.
§§91.884-91.899   [Reserved]

Subpart J—Waivers

§91.901   [Reserved]
§91.903   Policy and procedures.
§91.905   List of rules subject to waivers.
§§91.907-91.999   [Reserved]

Subpart K—Fractional Ownership Operations

§91.1001   Applicability.
§91.1002   Compliance date.
§91.1003   Management contract between owner and program manager.
§91.1005   Prohibitions and limitations.
§91.1007   Flights conducted under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter.

Operational Control

§91.1009   Clarification of operational control.
§91.1011   Operational control responsibilities and delegation.
§91.1013   Operational control briefing and acknowledgment.

Program Management

§91.1014   Issuing or denying management specifications.
§91.1015   Management specifications.
§91.1017   Amending program manager's management specifications.
§91.1019   Conducting tests and inspections.
§91.1021   Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.
§91.1023   Program operating manual requirements.
§91.1025   Program operating manual contents.
§91.1027   Recordkeeping.
§91.1029   Flight scheduling and locating requirements.
§91.1031   Pilot in command or second in command: Designation required.
§91.1033   Operating information required.
§91.1035   Passenger awareness.
§91.1037   Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports.
§91.1039   IFR takeoff, approach and landing minimums.
§91.1041   Aircraft proving and validation tests.
§91.1043   [Reserved]
§91.1045   Additional equipment requirements.
§91.1047   Drug and alcohol misuse education program.
§91.1049   Personnel.
§91.1050   Employment of former FAA employees.
§91.1051   Pilot safety background check.
§91.1053   Crewmember experience.
§91.1055   Pilot operating limitations and pairing requirement.
§91.1057   Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.
§91.1059   Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.
§91.1061   Augmented flight crews.
§91.1062   Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight attendants.
§91.1063   Testing and training: Applicability and terms used.
§91.1065   Initial and recurrent pilot testing requirements.
§91.1067   Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements.
§91.1069   Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.
§91.1071   Crewmember: Tests and checks, grace provisions, training to accepted standards.
§91.1073   Training program: General.
§91.1075   Training program: Special rules.
§91.1077   Training program and revision: Initial and final approval.
§91.1079   Training program: Curriculum.
§91.1081   Crewmember training requirements.
§91.1083   Crewmember emergency training.
§91.1085   Hazardous materials recognition training.
§91.1087   Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.
§91.1089   Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).
§91.1091   Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).
§91.1093   Initial and transition training and checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator).
§91.1095   Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors (simulator).
§91.1097   Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs.
§91.1099   Crewmember initial and recurrent training requirements.
§91.1101   Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training.
§91.1103   Pilots: Initial, transition, upgrade, requalification, and differences flight training.
§91.1105   Flight attendants: Initial and transition ground training.
§91.1107   Recurrent training.
§91.1109   Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program.
§91.1111   Maintenance training.
§91.1113   Maintenance recordkeeping.
§91.1115   Inoperable instruments and equipment.
§91.1411   Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager.
§91.1413   CAMP: Responsibility for airworthiness.
§91.1415   CAMP: Mechanical reliability reports.
§91.1417   CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.
§91.1423   CAMP: Maintenance organization.
§91.1425   CAMP: Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration programs.
§91.1427   CAMP: Manual requirements.
§91.1429   CAMP: Required inspection personnel.
§91.1431   CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.
§91.1433   CAMP: Maintenance and preventive maintenance training program.
§91.1435   CAMP: Certificate requirements.
§91.1437   CAMP: Authority to perform and approve maintenance.
§91.1439   CAMP: Maintenance recording requirements.
§91.1441   CAMP: Transfer of maintenance records.
§91.1443   CAMP: Airworthiness release or aircraft maintenance log entry.

Subpart L—Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements

§91.1501   Purpose and definition.
§91.1503   [Reserved]
§91.1505   Repairs assessment for pressurized fuselages.
§91.1507   Fuel tank system inspection program.

Subpart M—Special Federal Aviation Regulations

§91.1603   Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 112—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR).
§91.1607   Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 113—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Simferopol (UKFV) and the Dnipropetrovsk (UKDV) Flight Information Regions (FIRs).
§91.1609   Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 114—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Damascus (OSTT) Flight Information Region (FIR).
§91.1611   Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 115—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in Specified Areas of the Sanaa (OYSC) Flight Information Region (FIR).
§91.1613   Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 107—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Territory and Airspace of Somalia.

Subpart N—Mitsubishi MU-2B Series Special Training, Experience, and Operating Requirements

§91.1701   Applicability.
§91.1703   Compliance and eligibility.
§91.1705   Required pilot training.
§91.1707   Training program hours.
§91.1709   Training program approval.
§91.1711   Aeronautical experience.
§91.1713   Instruction, checking, and evaluation.
§91.1715   Currency requirements and flight review.
§91.1717   Operating requirements.
§91.1719   Credit for prior training.
§91.1721   Incorporation by reference.
Appendix A to Part 91—Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance
Appendix B to Part 91—Authorizations To Exceed Mach 1 (§91.817)
Appendix C to Part 91—Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace
Appendix D to Part 91—Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions
Appendix E to Part 91—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications
Appendix F to Part 91—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications
Appendix G to Part 91—Operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace

 

 

 




Title 14: Aeronautics and Space


PART 43—MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION


Contents

§43.1 Applicability.

§43.2 Records of overhaul and rebuilding.

§43.3 Persons authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations.

§43.5 Approval for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.

§43.7 Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.

§43.9 Content, form, and disposition of maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration records (except inspections performed in accordance with part 91, part 125, §135.411(a)(1), and §135.419 of this chapter).

§43.10 Disposition of life-limited aircraft parts.

§43.11 Content, form, and disposition of records for inspections conducted under parts 91 and 125 and §§135.411(a)(1) and 135.419 of this chapter.

§43.12 Maintenance records: Falsification, reproduction, or alteration.

§43.13 Performance rules (general).

§43.15 Additional performance rules for inspections.

§43.16 Airworthiness limitations.

§43.17 Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations performed on U.S. aeronautical products by certain Canadian persons.

Appendix A to Part 43—Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

Appendix B to Part 43—Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

Appendix C to Part 43 [Reserved]

Appendix D to Part 43—Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and 100-Hour Inspections

Appendix E to Part 43—Altimeter System Test and Inspection

Appendix F to Part 43—ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections





e-CFR data is current as of September 13, 2017


Title 14 → Chapter I → Subchapter D → Part 61


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Title 14: Aeronautics and Space


PART 61—CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS


Contents

Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 73—Robinson R-22/R-44 Special Training and Experience Requirements

Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2—Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who are Assigned Outside the United States in Support of U.S. Armed Forces Operations


Subpart A—General


§61.1 Applicability and definitions.

§61.2 Exercise of Privilege.

§61.3 Requirement for certificates, ratings, and authorizations.

§61.4 Qualification and approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

§61.5 Certificates and ratings issued under this part.

§61.7 Obsolete certificates and ratings.

§61.8 Inapplicability of unmanned aircraft operations.

§61.9 [Reserved]

§61.11 Expired pilot certificates and re-issuance.

§61.13 Issuance of airman certificates, ratings, and authorizations.

§61.14 [Reserved]

§61.15 Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

§61.16 Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.

§61.17 Temporary certificate.

§61.18 Security disqualification.

§61.19 Duration of pilot and instructor certificates and privileges.

§61.21 Duration of a Category II and a Category III pilot authorization (for other than part 121 and part 135 use).

§61.23 Medical certificates: Requirement and duration.

§61.25 Change of name.

§61.27 Voluntary surrender or exchange of certificate.

§61.29 Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

§61.31 Type rating requirements, additional training, and authorization requirements.

§61.33 Tests: General procedure.

§61.35 Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing grades.

§61.37 Knowledge tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct.

§61.39 Prerequisites for practical tests.

§61.41 Flight training received from flight instructors not certificated by the FAA.

§61.43 Practical tests: General procedures.

§61.45 Practical tests: Required aircraft and equipment.

§61.47 Status of an examiner who is authorized by the Administrator to conduct practical tests.

§61.49 Retesting after failure.

§61.51 Pilot logbooks.

§61.52 Use of aeronautical experience obtained in ultralight vehicles.

§61.53 Prohibition on operations during medical deficiency.

§61.55 Second-in-command qualifications.

§61.56 Flight review.

§61.57 Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.

§61.58 Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of an aircraft that requires more than one pilot flight crewmember or is turbojet-powered.

§61.59 Falsification, reproduction, or alteration of applications, certificates, logbooks, reports, or records.

§61.60 Change of address.


Subpart B—Aircraft Ratings and Pilot Authorizations


§61.61 Applicability.

§61.63 Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level).

§61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

§61.65 Instrument rating requirements.

§61.66 Enhanced Flight Vision System Pilot Requirements.

§61.67 Category II pilot authorization requirements.

§61.68 Category III pilot authorization requirements.

§61.69 Glider and unpowered ultralight vehicle towing: Experience and training requirements.

§61.71 Graduates of an approved training program other than under this part: Special rules.

§61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

§61.75 Private pilot certificate issued on the basis of a foreign pilot license.

§61.77 Special purpose pilot authorization: Operation of a civil aircraft of the United States and leased by a non-U.S. citizen.


Subpart C—Student Pilots


§61.81 Applicability.

§61.83 Eligibility requirements for student pilots.

§61.85 Application.

§61.87 Solo requirements for student pilots.

§61.89 General limitations.

§61.91 [Reserved]

§61.93 Solo cross-country flight requirements.

§61.94 Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at airports within, and in airspace located within, Class B, C, and D airspace, or at airports with an operational control tower in other airspace.

§61.95 Operations in Class B airspace and at airports located within Class B airspace.


Subpart D—Recreational Pilots


§61.96 Applicability and eligibility requirements: General.

§61.97 Aeronautical knowledge.

§61.98 Flight proficiency.

§61.99 Aeronautical experience.

§61.100 Pilots based on small islands.

§61.101 Recreational pilot privileges and limitations.


Subpart E—Private Pilots


§61.102 Applicability.

§61.103 Eligibility requirements: General.

§61.105 Aeronautical knowledge.

§61.107 Flight proficiency.

§61.109 Aeronautical experience.

§61.110 Night flying exceptions.

§61.111 Cross-country flights: Pilots based on small islands.

§61.113 Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command.

§61.115 Balloon rating: Limitations.

§61.117 Private pilot privileges and limitations: Second in command of aircraft requiring more than one pilot.

§§61.118-61.120 [Reserved]


Subpart F—Commercial Pilots


§61.121 Applicability.

§61.123 Eligibility requirements: General.

§61.125 Aeronautical knowledge.

§61.127 Flight proficiency.

§61.129 Aeronautical experience.

§61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

§61.133 Commercial pilot privileges and limitations.

§§61.135-61.141 [Reserved]


Subpart G—Airline Transport Pilots


§61.151 Applicability.

§61.153 Eligibility requirements: General.

§61.155 Aeronautical knowledge.

§61.156 Training requirements: Airplane category—multiengine class rating or airplane type rating concurrently with airline transport pilot certificate.

§61.157 Flight proficiency.

§61.158 [Reserved]

§61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

§61.160 Aeronautical experience—airplane category restricted privileges.

§61.161 Aeronautical experience: Rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating.

§61.163 Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

§61.165 Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

§61.167 Airline transport pilot privileges and limitations.

§61.169 Letters of authorization for institutions of higher education.

§§61.170-69.171 [Reserved]


Subpart H—Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating


§61.181 Applicability.

§61.183 Eligibility requirements.

§61.185 Aeronautical knowledge.

§61.187 Flight proficiency.

§61.189 Flight instructor records.

§61.191 Additional flight instructor ratings.

§61.193 Flight instructor privileges.

§61.195 Flight instructor limitations and qualifications.

§61.197 Renewal requirements for flight instructor certification.

§61.199 Reinstatement requirements of an expired flight instructor certificate.

§61.201 [Reserved]


Subpart I—Ground Instructors


§61.211 Applicability.

§61.213 Eligibility requirements.

§61.215 Ground instructor privileges.

§61.217 Recent experience requirements.


Subpart J—Sport Pilots


§61.301 What is the purpose of this subpart and to whom does it apply?

§61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport aircraft, what operating limits and endorsement requirements in this subpart must I comply with?

§61.305 What are the age and language requirements for a sport pilot certificate?

§61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?

§61.309 What aeronautical knowledge must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate?

§61.311 What flight proficiency requirements must I meet to apply for a sport pilot certificate?

§61.313 What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate?

§61.315 What are the privileges and limits of my sport pilot certificate?

§61.317 Is my sport pilot certificate issued with aircraft category and class ratings?

§61.319 [Reserved]

§61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

§61.323 [Reserved]

§61.325 How do I obtain privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft at an airport within, or in airspace within, Class B, C, and D airspace, or in other airspace with an airport having an operational control tower?

§61.327 Are there specific endorsement requirements to operate a light-sport aircraft based on VH?


Subpart K—Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating


§61.401 What is the purpose of this subpart?

§61.403 What are the age, language, and pilot certificate requirements for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

§61.405 What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

§61.407 What aeronautical knowledge must I have to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

§61.409 What flight proficiency requirements must I meet to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

§61.411 What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

§61.413 What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

§61.415 What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

§61.417 Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class ratings?

§61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

§61.421 May I give myself an endorsement?

§61.423 What are the recordkeeping requirements for a flight instructor with a sport pilot rating?

§61.425 How do I renew my flight instructor certificate?

§61.427 What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires?

§61.429 May I exercise the privileges of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating if I hold a flight instructor certificate with another rating?










e-CFR data is current as of September 13, 2017


Title 14 → Chapter I → Subchapter F → Part 91


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Title 14: Aeronautics and Space


PART 91—GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES


Contents

Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 60—Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation

Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 79—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)

Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97—Special Operating Rules for the Conduct of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) in Alaska

Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104—Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108—Mitsubishi MU-2B Series Special Training, Experience, and Operating Requirements


Subpart A—General


§91.1 Applicability.

§91.3 Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command.

§91.5 Pilot in command of aircraft requiring more than one required pilot.

§91.7 Civil aircraft airworthiness.

§91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

§91.11 Prohibition on interference with crewmembers.

§91.13 Careless or reckless operation.

§91.15 Dropping objects.

§91.17 Alcohol or drugs.

§91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

§91.21 Portable electronic devices.

§91.23 Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional sales contracts.

§91.25 Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.

§§91.27-91.99 [Reserved]


Subpart B—Flight Rules


General


§91.101 Applicability.

§91.103 Preflight action.

§91.105 Flight crewmembers at stations.

§91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

§91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

§91.111 Operating near other aircraft.

§91.113 Right-of-way rules: Except water operations.

§91.115 Right-of-way rules: Water operations.

§91.117 Aircraft speed.

§91.119 Minimum safe altitudes: General.

§91.121 Altimeter settings.

§91.123 Compliance with ATC clearances and instructions.

§91.125 ATC light signals.

§91.126 Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class G airspace.

§91.127 Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class E airspace.

§91.129 Operations in Class D airspace.

§91.130 Operations in Class C airspace.

§91.131 Operations in Class B airspace.

§91.133 Restricted and prohibited areas.

§91.135 Operations in Class A airspace.

§91.137 Temporary flight restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas.

§91.138 Temporary flight restrictions in national disaster areas in the State of Hawaii.

§91.139 Emergency air traffic rules.

§91.141 Flight restrictions in the proximity of the Presidential and other parties.

§91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

§91.144 Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

§91.145 Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting events.

§91.146 Passenger-carrying flights for the benefit of a charitable, nonprofit, or community event.

§91.147 Passenger carrying flights for compensation or hire.

§§91.148-91.149 [Reserved]


Visual Flight Rules


§91.151 Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.

§91.153 VFR flight plan: Information required.

§91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums.

§91.157 Special VFR weather minimums.

§91.159 VFR cruising altitude or flight level.

§91.161 Special awareness training required for pilots flying under visual flight rules within a 60-nautical mile radius of the Washington, DC VOR/DME.

§§91.162-91.165 [Reserved]


Instrument Flight Rules


§91.167 Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions.

§91.169 IFR flight plan: Information required.

§91.171 VOR equipment check for IFR operations.

§91.173 ATC clearance and flight plan required.

§91.175 Takeoff and landing under IFR.

§91.176 Straight-in landing operations below DA/DH or MDA using an enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) under IFR.

§91.177 Minimum altitudes for IFR operations.

§91.179 IFR cruising altitude or flight level.

§91.180 Operations within airspace designated as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum airspace.

§91.181 Course to be flown.

§91.183 IFR communications.

§91.185 IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure.

§91.187 Operation under IFR in controlled airspace: Malfunction reports.

§91.189 Category II and III operations: General operating rules.

§91.191 Category II and Category III manual.

§91.193 Certificate of authorization for certain Category II operations.

§§91.195-91.199 [Reserved]


Subpart C—Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements


§91.201 [Reserved]

§91.203 Civil aircraft: Certifications required.

§91.205 Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements.

§91.207 Emergency locator transmitters.

§91.209 Aircraft lights.

§91.211 Supplemental oxygen.

§91.213 Inoperative instruments and equipment.

§91.215 ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and use.

§91.217 Data correspondence between automatically reported pressure altitude data and the pilot's altitude reference.

§91.219 Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes.

§91.221 Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.

§91.223 Terrain awareness and warning system.

§91.225 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment and use.

§91.227 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment performance requirements.

§§91.228-91.299 [Reserved]


Subpart D—Special Flight Operations


§91.301 [Reserved]

§91.303 Aerobatic flight.

§91.305 Flight test areas.

§91.307 Parachutes and parachuting.

§91.309 Towing: Gliders and unpowered ultralight vehicles.

§91.311 Towing: Other than under §91.309.

§91.313 Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

§91.315 Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

§91.317 Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

§91.319 Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.

§91.321 Carriage of candidates in elections.

§91.323 Increased maximum certificated weights for certain airplanes operated in Alaska.

§91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.

§91.327 Aircraft having a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations.

§§91.328-91.399 [Reserved]


Subpart E—Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations


§91.401 Applicability.

§91.403 General.

§91.405 Maintenance required.

§91.407 Operation after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.

§91.409 Inspections.

§91.410 [Reserved]

§91.411 Altimeter system and altitude reporting equipment tests and inspections.

§91.413 ATC transponder tests and inspections.

§91.415 Changes to aircraft inspection programs.

§91.417 Maintenance records.

§91.419 Transfer of maintenance records.

§91.421 Rebuilt engine maintenance records.

§§91.423-91.499 [Reserved]


Subpart F—Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft


§91.501 Applicability.

§91.503 Flying equipment and operating information.

§91.505 Familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment.

§91.507 Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.

§91.509 Survival equipment for overwater operations.

§91.511 Communication and navigation equipment for overwater operations.

§91.513 Emergency equipment.

§91.515 Flight altitude rules.

§91.517 Passenger information.

§91.519 Passenger briefing.

§91.521 Shoulder harness.

§91.523 Carry-on baggage.

§91.525 Carriage of cargo.

§91.527 Operating in icing conditions.

§91.529 Flight engineer requirements.

§91.531 Second in command requirements.

§91.533 Flight attendant requirements.

§91.535 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing.

§§91.536-91.599 [Reserved]


Subpart G—Additional Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft


§91.601 Applicability.

§91.603 Aural speed warning device.

§91.605 Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

§91.607 Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire.

§91.609 Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

§91.611 Authorization for ferry flight with one engine inoperative.

§91.613 Materials for compartment interiors.

§§91.615-91.699 [Reserved]


Subpart H—Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft


§91.701 Applicability.

§91.702 Persons on board.

§91.703 Operations of civil aircraft of U.S. registry outside of the United States.

§91.705 Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.

§91.706 Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace.

§91.707 Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States.

§91.709 Operations to Cuba.

§91.711 Special rules for foreign civil aircraft.

§91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

§91.715 Special flight authorizations for foreign civil aircraft.

§§91.717-91.799 [Reserved]


Subpart I—Operating Noise Limits


§91.801 Applicability: Relation to part 36.

§91.803 Part 125 operators: Designation of applicable regulations.

§91.805 Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes.

§§91.807-91.813 [Reserved]

§91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

§91.817 Civil aircraft sonic boom.

§91.819 Civil supersonic airplanes that do not comply with part 36.

§91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

§§91.823-91.849 [Reserved]

§91.851 Definitions.

§91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

§91.855 Entry and nonaddition rule.

§91.857 Stage 2 operations outside of the 48 contiguous United States.

§91.858 Special flight authorizations for non-revenue Stage 2 operations.

§91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

§91.861 Base level.

§91.863 Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base level.

§91.865 Phased compliance for operators with base level.

§91.867 Phased compliance for new entrants.

§91.869 Carry-forward compliance.

§91.871 Waivers from interim compliance requirements.

§91.873 Waivers from final compliance.

§91.875 Annual progress reports.

§91.877 Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.

§§91.879-91.880 [Reserved]

§91.881 Final compliance: Civil subsonic jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less.

§91.883 Special flight authorizations for jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less.

§§91.884-91.899 [Reserved]


Subpart J—Waivers


§91.901 [Reserved]

§91.903 Policy and procedures.

§91.905 List of rules subject to waivers.

§§91.907-91.999 [Reserved]


Subpart K—Fractional Ownership Operations


§91.1001 Applicability.

§91.1002 Compliance date.

§91.1003 Management contract between owner and program manager.

§91.1005 Prohibitions and limitations.

§91.1007 Flights conducted under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter.


Operational Control


§91.1009 Clarification of operational control.

§91.1011 Operational control responsibilities and delegation.

§91.1013 Operational control briefing and acknowledgment.


Program Management


§91.1014 Issuing or denying management specifications.

§91.1015 Management specifications.

§91.1017 Amending program manager's management specifications.

§91.1019 Conducting tests and inspections.

§91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

§91.1023 Program operating manual requirements.

§91.1025 Program operating manual contents.

§91.1027 Recordkeeping.

§91.1029 Flight scheduling and locating requirements.

§91.1031 Pilot in command or second in command: Designation required.

§91.1033 Operating information required.

§91.1035 Passenger awareness.

§91.1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports.

§91.1039 IFR takeoff, approach and landing minimums.

§91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests.

§91.1043 [Reserved]

§91.1045 Additional equipment requirements.

§91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program.

§91.1049 Personnel.

§91.1050 Employment of former FAA employees.

§91.1051 Pilot safety background check.

§91.1053 Crewmember experience.

§91.1055 Pilot operating limitations and pairing requirement.

§91.1057 Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

§91.1059 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

§91.1061 Augmented flight crews.

§91.1062 Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight attendants.

§91.1063 Testing and training: Applicability and terms used.

§91.1065 Initial and recurrent pilot testing requirements.

§91.1067 Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements.

§91.1069 Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.

§91.1071 Crewmember: Tests and checks, grace provisions, training to accepted standards.

§91.1073 Training program: General.

§91.1075 Training program: Special rules.

§91.1077 Training program and revision: Initial and final approval.

§91.1079 Training program: Curriculum.

§91.1081 Crewmember training requirements.

§91.1083 Crewmember emergency training.

§91.1085 Hazardous materials recognition training.

§91.1087 Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.

§91.1089 Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

§91.1091 Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).

§91.1093 Initial and transition training and checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator).

§91.1095 Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors (simulator).

§91.1097 Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs.

§91.1099 Crewmember initial and recurrent training requirements.

§91.1101 Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training.

§91.1103 Pilots: Initial, transition, upgrade, requalification, and differences flight training.

§91.1105 Flight attendants: Initial and transition ground training.

§91.1107 Recurrent training.

§91.1109 Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program.

§91.1111 Maintenance training.

§91.1113 Maintenance recordkeeping.

§91.1115 Inoperable instruments and equipment.

§91.1411 Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager.

§91.1413 CAMP: Responsibility for airworthiness.

§91.1415 CAMP: Mechanical reliability reports.

§91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

§91.1423 CAMP: Maintenance organization.

§91.1425 CAMP: Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration programs.

§91.1427 CAMP: Manual requirements.

§91.1429 CAMP: Required inspection personnel.

§91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

§91.1433 CAMP: Maintenance and preventive maintenance training program.

§91.1435 CAMP: Certificate requirements.

§91.1437 CAMP: Authority to perform and approve maintenance.

§91.1439 CAMP: Maintenance recording requirements.

§91.1441 CAMP: Transfer of maintenance records.

§91.1443 CAMP: Airworthiness release or aircraft maintenance log entry.


Subpart L—Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements


§91.1501 Purpose and definition.

§91.1503 [Reserved]

§91.1505 Repairs assessment for pressurized fuselages.

§91.1507 Fuel tank system inspection program.


Subpart M—Special Federal Aviation Regulations


§91.1603 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 112—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR).

§91.1607 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 113—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Simferopol (UKFV) and the Dnipropetrovsk (UKDV) Flight Information Regions (FIRs).

§91.1609 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 114—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Damascus (OSTT) Flight Information Region (FIR).

§91.1611 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 115—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in Specified Areas of the Sanaa (OYSC) Flight Information Region (FIR).

§91.1613 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 107—Prohibition Against Certain Flights in the Territory and Airspace of Somalia.


Subpart N—Mitsubishi MU-2B Series Special Training, Experience, and Operating Requirements


§91.1701 Applicability.

§91.1703 Compliance and eligibility.

§91.1705 Required pilot training.

§91.1707 Training program hours.

§91.1709 Training program approval.

§91.1711 Aeronautical experience.

§91.1713 Instruction, checking, and evaluation.

§91.1715 Currency requirements and flight review.

§91.1717 Operating requirements.

§91.1719 Credit for prior training.

§91.1721 Incorporation by reference.

Appendix A to Part 91—Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance

Appendix B to Part 91—Authorizations To Exceed Mach 1 (§91.817)

Appendix C to Part 91—Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace

Appendix D to Part 91—Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

Appendix E to Part 91—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

Appendix F to Part 91—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

Appendix G to Part 91—Operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace








Department of Transportation

Federal Aviation Administration


FAA-S-ACS-6A


(Change 1)






Private Pilot ‒ Airplane


Airman Certification Standards








June 2017









Flight Standards Service Washington, DC 20591

Acknowledgments



The U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Airman Testing Standards Branch, AFS-630, P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125 developed this Airman Certification Standards (ACS) document with the assistance of the aviation community. The FAA gratefully acknowledges the valuable support from the many individuals and organizations who contributed their time and expertise to assist in this endeavor.


Availability



This ACS is available for download from www.faa.gov. Please send comments regarding this document to AFS630comments@faa.gov.


Material in FAA-S-ACS-6A will be effective June 12, 2017. All previous editions of the Private Pilot – Airplane Airman Certification Standards will be obsolete as of this date for airplane applicants.

Foreword



The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has published the Private Pilot – Airplane Airman Certification Standards (ACS) document to communicate the aeronautical knowledge, risk management, and flight proficiency standards for the private pilot certification in the airplane category, single-engine land and sea; and multiengine land and sea classes. This ACS incorporates and supersedes FAA-S-ACS-6, Private Pilot-Airplane Airman Certification Standards, Change 1.


The FAA views the ACS as the foundation of its transition to a more integrated and systematic approach to airman certification. The ACS is part of the safety management system (SMS) framework that the FAA uses to mitigate risks associated with airman certification training and testing. Specifically, the ACS, associated guidance, and test question components of the airman certification system are constructed around the four functional components of an SMS:


§ Safety Policy that defines and describes aeronautical knowledge, flight proficiency, and risk management as integrated components of the airman certification system;


§ Safety Risk Management processes through which both internal and external stakeholders identify changes in regulations, safety recommendations, or other factors. These changes are then evaluated to determine whether they require modification of airman testing and training materials;


§ Safety Assurance processes to ensure the prompt and appropriate incorporation of changes arising from new regulations and safety recommendations; and


§ Safety Promotion in the form of ongoing engagement with both external stakeholders (e.g., the aviation training industry) and FAA policy divisions.


The FAA has developed this ACS and its associated guidance in collaboration with a diverse group of aviation training experts. The goal is to drive a systematic approach to all components of the airman certification system, including knowledge test question development and conduct of the practical test. The FAA acknowledges and appreciates the many hours that these aviation experts have contributed toward this goal. This level of collaboration, a hallmark of a robust safety culture, strengthens and enhances aviation safety at every level of the airman certification system.






/s/ May 17, 2017 John S. Duncan



Director, Flight Standards Service





Document #


Description


Revision Date



FAA-S-8081-14B


Private Pilot Practical Test Standards for Airplane, (Changes 1-6)



November 2011



FAA-S-ACS-6


Private Pilot – Airplane Airman Certification Standards



June 1, 2016



FAA-S-ACS-6


Private Pilot – Airplane Airman Certification Standards (Change 1)



June 15, 2016



FAA-S-ACS-6A


Private Pilot – Airplane Airman Certification Standards (Change 1)



June 12, 2017



Change 1 – June 12, 2017



· Revised title of Area of Operations IV from “Takeoffs, Landing and Go-Arounds” to “Takeoffs, Landings, and Go-Arounds” (page 20).


· Corrected ACS codes for Skill elements 4 through 8 in Area of Operations IV. Takeoffs, Landings, and Go-Arounds, Task M. Forward Slip to a Landing (ASEL, ASES) (page 32).


· Corrected ACS codes for Knowledge elements 1a through 5 in Area of Operations IX. Emergency Operations, Task B. Emergency Approach and Landing (Simulated) (ASEL, ASES) (page 51).


· Corrected ACS code for Risk Management element 6 in Area of Operations X. Multiengine Operations, Task A. Maneuvering with One Engine Inoperative (AMEL, AMES) (page 57).


· Removed “Flight Plan Form” from Practical Test Checklist (Applicant) in Appendix 5: Practical Test Roles, Responsibilities, and Outcomes (page A-11).





· Revised the “Using the ACS” section in the Introduction.


· Revised all Tasks in all Areas of Operation to include more generalized element descriptions.


· Removed Task J. Principles of Flight –Engine Inoperative (AMEL, AMES) from Area of Operation I. Preflight Preparation.


· Updated the following Appendices:


o Appendix 1: The Knowledge Test Eligibility, Prerequisites, and Testing Centers.


o Appendix 5: Practical Test Roles, Responsibilities, and Outcomes.


o Appendix 6: Safety of Flight


o Appendix 7: Aircraft, Equipment, and Operational Requirements & Limitations


o Appendix 9: References.


o Appendix 10: Abbreviations and Acronyms.

This page intentionally left blank.

Table of Contents


Introduction 1


Airman Certification Standards Concept 1


Using the ACS 1


I. Preflight Preparation 3


A. Pilot Qualifications 3


B. Airworthiness Requirements 4


C. Weather Information 5


D. Cross-Country Flight Planning 6


E. National Airspace System 7


F. Performance and Limitations 8


G. Operation of Systems 9


H. Human Factors 10


I. Water and Seaplane Characteristics, Seaplane Bases, Maritime Rules, and Aids to Marine


Navigation (ASES, AMES) 11


II. Preflight Procedures 12


A. Preflight Assessment 12


B. Flight Deck Management 13


C. Engine Starting 14


D. Taxiing (ASEL, AMEL) 15


E. Taxiing and Sailing (ASES, AMES) 16


F. Before Takeoff Check 17


III. Airport and Seaplane Base Operations 18


A. Communications and Light Signals 18


B. Traffic Patterns 19


IV. Takeoffs, Landings, and Go-Arounds 20


A. Normal Takeoff and Climb 20


B. Normal Approach and Landing 21


C. Soft-Field Takeoff and Climb (ASEL) 22


D. Soft-Field Approach and Landing (ASEL) 23


E. Short-Field Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb (ASEL, AMEL) 24


F. Short-Field Approach and Landing (ASEL, AMEL) 25


G. Confined Area Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb (ASES, AMES) 26


H. Confined Area Approach and Landing (ASES, AMES) 27


I. Glassy Water Takeoff and Climb (ASES, AMES) 28


J. Glassy Water Approach and Landing (ASES, AMES) 29


K. Rough Water Takeoff and Climb (ASES, AMES) 30


L. Rough Water Approach and Landing (ASES, AMES) 31


M. Forward Slip to a Landing (ASEL, ASES) 32


N. Go-Around/Rejected Landing 33


V. Performance and Ground Reference Maneuvers 34


A. Steep Turns 34


B. Ground Reference Maneuvers 35


VI. Navigation 36


A. Pilotage and Dead Reckoning 36


B. Navigation Systems and Radar Services 37


C. Diversion 38


D. Lost Procedures 39


VII. Slow Flight and Stalls 40


A. Maneuvering During Slow Flight 40


B. Power-Off Stalls 41


C. Power-On Stalls 42


D. Spin Awareness 43


VIII. Basic Instrument Maneuvers 44


A. Straight-and-Level Flight 44


B. Constant Airspeed Climbs 45


C. Constant Airspeed Descents 46


D. Turns to Headings 47


E. Recovery from Unusual Flight Attitudes 48


F. Radio Communications, Navigation Systems/Facilities, and Radar Services 49


IX. Emergency Operations 50


A. Emergency Descent 50


B. Emergency Approach and Landing (Simulated) (ASEL, ASES) 51


C. Systems and Equipment Malfunction 52


D. Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear 53


E. Engine Failure During Takeoff Before VMC (Simulated) (AMEL, AMES) 54


F. Engine Failure After Liftoff (Simulated) (AMEL, AMES) 55


G. Approach and Landing with an Inoperative Engine (Simulated) (AMEL, AMES) 56


X. Multiengine Operations 57


A. Maneuvering with One Engine Inoperative (AMEL, AMES) 57


B. VMC Demonstration (AMEL, AMES) 58


C. Engine Failure During Flight (by Reference to Instruments) (AMEL, AMES) 59


D. Instrument Approach and Landing with an Inoperative Engine (Simulated) (by Reference to


Instruments) (AMEL, AMES) 60


XI. Night Operations 61


A. Night Preparation 61


XII. Postflight Procedures 62


A. After Landing, Parking and Securing (ASEL, AMEL) 62


B. Seaplane Post-Landing Procedures (ASES, AMES) 63



Appendix Table of Contents 65

Introduction


Airman Certification Standards Concept



The goal of the airman certification process is to ensure the applicant possesses the knowledge, ability to manage risks, and skill consistent with the privileges of the certificate or rating being exercised, in order to act as Pilot-in- command (PIC).


In fulfilling its responsibilities for the airman certification process, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Flight Standards Service (AFS) plans, develops, and maintains materials related to airman certification training and testing. These materials have included several components. The FAA knowledge test measures mastery of the aeronautical knowledge areas listed in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61. Other materials, such as handbooks in the FAA-H-8083 series, provide guidance to applicants on aeronautical knowledge, risk management, and flight proficiency.


Safe operations in today’s National Airspace System (NAS) require integration of aeronautical knowledge, risk management, and flight proficiency standards. To accomplish these goals, the FAA drew upon the expertise of organizations and individuals across the aviation and training community to develop the Airman Certification Standards (ACS). The ACS integrates the elements of knowledge, risk management, and skill listed in 14 CFR part 61 for each airman certificate or rating. It thus forms a more comprehensive standard for what an applicant must know, consider, and do for the safe conduct and successful completion of each Task to be tested on both the qualifying FAA knowledge test and the oral and flight portions of the practical test.


Through the ground and flight portion of the practical test, the FAA expects evaluators to assess the applicant's mastery of the topic in accordance with the level of learning most appropriate for the specified Task. The oral questioning will continue throughout the entire practical test. For some topics, the evaluator will ask the applicant to describe or explain. For other items, the evaluator will assess the applicant's understanding by providing a scenario that requires the applicant to appropriately apply and/or correlate knowledge, experience, and information to the circumstances of the given scenario. The flight portion of the practical test requires the applicant to demonstrate knowledge, risk management, flight proficiency, and operational skill in accordance with the ACS.


Note: As used in the ACS, an evaluator is any person authorized to conduct airman testing (e.g., an FAA Aviation Safety Inspector (ASI), Designated Pilot Examiner (DPE), or other individual authorized to conduct test for a certificate or rating).


Using the ACS



The ACS consists of Areas of Operation arranged in a logical sequence, beginning with Preflight Preparation and ending with Postflight Procedures. Each Area of Operation includes Tasks appropriate to that Area of Operation. Each Task begins with an Objective stating what the applicant should know, consider, and/or do. The ACS then lists the aeronautical knowledge, risk management, and skill elements relevant to the specific Task, along with the conditions and standards for acceptable performance. The ACS uses Notes to emphasize special considerations. The ACS uses the terms "will" and "must" to convey directive (mandatory) information. The term “may” denotes items that are recommended but not required. The References for each Task indicate the source material for Task elements. For example, in Tasks such as “Weather products required for preflight planning, current and forecast weather for departure, en route, and arrival phases of flight.” (PA.I.C.K2), the applicant should be prepared for questions on any weather product presented in the references for that Task.


The abbreviation(s) within parentheses immediately following a Task refer to the category and/or class aircraft appropriate to that Task. The meaning of each abbreviation is as follows:


ASEL: Airplane –Single-EngineLandASES: Airplane –Single-EngineSeaAMEL: Airplane –MultiengineLand AMES: Airplane – MultiengineSea



Note: When administering a test, the Tasks appropriate to the class airplane (ASEL, ASES, AMEL, or AMES) used for the test must be included in the plan of action. The absence of a class indicates the Task is for all classes.


Each Task in the ACS is coded according to a scheme that includes four elements. For example:

PA.XI.A.K1:


PA = Applicable ACS (Private Pilot ‒ Airplane)


XI = Area of Operation (NightOperations)


A = Task (NightPreparation)


K1 = Task element Knowledge 1 (Physiological aspects of night flying as it relates to vision.)



Knowledge test questions are linked to the ACS codes, which will soon replace the system of Learning Statement Codes (LSC). After this transition occurs, the Airman Knowledge Test Report (AKTR) will list an ACS code that correlates to a specific Task element for a given Area of Operation and Task. Remedial instruction and re-testing will be specific, targeted, and based on specified learning criteria. Similarly, a Notice of Disapproval for the practical test will use the ACS codes to identify the deficient Task elements.


Thecurrentknowledgetestmanagementsystem does nothavethecapabilitytoprintACScodes.Untilanewtest management system is in place, the LSC (e.g., “PLT058”) code will continue to be displayed on the AKTR. The LSC codes are linked to references leading to broad subject areas. By contrast, each ACS code is tied to a unique Task element in the ACS itself. Because of this fundamental difference, there is no one-to-one correlation between LSC codes and ACScodes.


Because all active knowledge test questions for the Private Pilot Airplane (PAR) Knowledge Test have been aligned with the corresponding ACS, evaluators can continue to use LSC codes in conjunction with the ACS for the time being. The evaluator should look up the LSC code(s) on the applicant’s AKTR in the Learning Statement Reference Guide. After noting the subject area(s), the evaluator can use the corresponding Area(s) of Operation/Task(s) in the ACS to narrow the scope of material for retesting, and to evaluate the applicant’s understanding of that material in the context of the appropriate ACS Area(s) of Operation and Task(s).


Applicants for a combined Private Pilot Certificate with Instrument Rating, in accordance with 14 CFR part 61, section 61.65 (a) and (g), must pass all areas designated in the Private Pilot – Airplane ACS and the Instrument Rating – Airplane ACS. Evaluators need not duplicate Tasks. For example, only one preflight demonstration would be required; however, the Preflight Task from the Instrument Rating – Airplane ACS would be more extensive than the Preflight Task from the Private Pilot – Airplane ACS to ensure readiness for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flight.


A combined checkride should be treated as one practical test, requiring only one application and resulting in only one temporary certificate, disapproval notice, or letter of discontinuance, as applicable. Failure of any Task will result in a failure of the entire test and application. Therefore, even if the deficient maneuver was instrument related and the performance of all visual flight rules (VFR) Tasks was determined to be satisfactory, the applicant will receive a notice of disapproval.


The applicant must pass the Private Pilot Airplane (PAR) Knowledge Test before taking the private pilot practical test. The practical test is conducted in accordance with the ACS and FAA regulations that are current as of the date of the test. Further, the applicant must pass the ground portion of the practical test before beginning the flight portion.


The ground portion of the practical test allows the evaluator to determine whether the applicant is sufficiently prepared to advance to the flight portion of the practical test. The oral questioning will continue throughout the entire practical test.



The FAA encourages applicants and instructors to use the ACS when preparing for knowledge tests and practical tests. The FAA will revise the ACS as circumstances require.





Task


A. Pilot Qualifications


References


14 CFR parts 61, 68, 91; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-25



Objective


To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with airman and medical certificates including privileges, limitations,


currency, and operating as pilot-in-command (PIC) as a private pilot.


Knowledge


The applicant demonstrates understanding of:


PA.I.A.K1


Certification requirements (This phrase is somewhat vague. Is it referring to--What is required to get the certificate? Or What does a certificate require to operate an aircraft)


(§61.3 Requirement for certificates, ratings, and authorizations(this shows what ID required to Operate a civil aircraft) (1) Pilot certificate issued according to 61.19, (2) Photo ID (Drivers Lic., (3) Medical certificate (all 3 IDs must be in the person's physical possession or readily accessible when operating aircraft)


(Requirements to GET a certificate: To get a Priv. Pilot Lic., Initially, you need 40 hrs of flt time, §61.109 Aeronautical experience in areas required by §61.105 Aeronautical knowledge and §61.107 Flight proficiency., §61.2 Exercise of Privilege (a) essentially states you can’t fly if your (1) Pilot Lic., (2) Medical cert and/or (3) Driver’s Lic.( Used as photo ID) are expired and/or (b) you aren’t current: haven’t had your flt rvw and/or your medical is out of date),


currency (61.2 Exercise of Privilege (b) (1) Currency. No person may:


(1) Exercise privileges of an airman certificate, rating, endorsement, or authorization issued under this part unless that person meets the appropriate airman and medical recency requirements of this part, specific to the operation or activity.,


(To Fly Yourself-requirements)(any license type)


§61.56 Flight review. -to fly at all(To Fly Yourself), you need a flt rvw evy 24 cal. mths;

[

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour of flight training and 1 hour of ground training. The review must include:



(1) A review of the current general operating and flight rules of part 91 of this chapter; and



(2) A review of those maneuvers and procedures that, at the discretion of the person giving the review, are necessary for the pilot to demonstrate the safe exercise of the privileges of the pilot certificate.



(b) Glider pilots may substitute a minimum of three instructional flights in a glider, each of which includes a flight to traffic pattern altitude, in lieu of the 1 hour of flight training required in paragraph (a) of this section.



(c) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (g) of this section, no person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft unless, since the beginning of the 24th calendar month before the month in which that pilot acts as pilot in command, that person has—



(1) Accomplished a flight review given in an aircraft for which that pilot is rated by an authorized instructor and



(2) A logbook endorsed from an authorized instructor who gave the review certifying that the person has satisfactorily completed the review.

]


(To Fly Yourself + carry Passengers-Requirements)


§61.57 Recent flight experience: Pilot in command. … to carry passengers, you need-3TOs/3Ldgs in 90 days),

(a) General experience. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, no person may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers or of an aircraft certificated for more than one pilot flight crewmember unless that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings within the preceding 90 days, and—



(i) The person acted as the sole manipulator of the flight controls; and



(ii) The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type (if a type rating is required), and, if the aircraft to be flown is an airplane with a tailwheel, the takeoffs and landings must have been made to a full stop in an airplane with a tailwheel.


(b) Night takeoff and landing experience. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, no person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, unless within the preceding 90 days that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, and—



(i) That person acted as sole manipulator of the flight controls; and



(ii) The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type (if a type rating is required).



and record keeping (§61.51 Pilot logbooks information entry requirements).

(a) Training time and aeronautical experience. Each person must document and record the following time in a manner acceptable to the Administrator:



(1) Training and aeronautical experience used to meet the requirements for a certificate, rating, or flight review of this part.



(2) The aeronautical experience required for meeting the recent flight experience requirements of this part.



(b) Logbook entries. For the purposes of meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, each person must enter the following information for each flight or lesson logged:



(1) General—



(i) Date.



(ii) Total flight time or lesson time.



(iii) Location where the aircraft departed and arrived, or for lessons in a flight simulator or flight training device, the location where the lesson occurred.



(iv) Type and identification of aircraft, flight simulator, flight training device, or aviation training device, as appropriate.



(v) The name of a safety pilot, if required by §91.109 of this chapter.



(2) Type of pilot experience or training—



(i) Solo.



(ii) Pilot in command.



(iii) Second in command.



(iv) Flight and ground training received from an authorized instructor.



(v) Training received in a flight simulator, flight training device, or aviation training device from an authorized instructor.



(3) Conditions of flight—



(i) Day or night.



(ii) Actual instrument.



(iii) Simulated instrument conditions in flight, a flight simulator, flight training device, or aviation training device.



(iv) Use of night vision goggles in an aircraft in flight, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device.


NOTEI found Nothing in 61.51 about recording # of Landings/Takeoffs in logbook (which is required for the 90 days recent flight experience for pssngr carrying ops)


§61.105 Aeronautical knowledge.



(a) General. A person who is applying for a private pilot certificate must receive and log ground training from an authorized instructor or complete a home-study course on the aeronautical knowledge areas of paragraph (b) of this section that apply to the aircraft category and class rating sought.



(b) Aeronautical knowledge areas. (1) Applicable Federal Aviation Regulations of this chapter that relate to private pilot privileges, limitations, and flight operations;



(2) Accident reporting requirements of the National Transportation Safety Board;



(3) Use of the applicable portions of the “Aeronautical Information Manual” and FAA advisory circulars;



(4) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR navigation using pilotage, dead reckoning, and navigation systems;



(5) Radio communication procedures;



(6) Recognition of critical weather situations from the ground and in flight, windshear avoidance, and the procurement and use of aeronautical weather reports and forecasts;



(7) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft, including collision avoidance, and recognition and avoidance of wake turbulence;



(8) Effects of density altitude on takeoff and climb performance;



(9) Weight and balance computations;



(10) Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants, and aircraft systems;



(11) Stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery techniques for the airplane and glider category ratings;



(12) Aeronautical decision making and judgment; and



(13) Preflight action that includes—



(i) How to obtain information on runway lengths at airports of intended use, data on takeoff and landing distances, weather reports and forecasts, and fuel requirements; and



(ii) How to plan for alternatives if the planned flight cannot be completed or delays are encountered.



[Doc. No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, Apr. 4, 1997; Amdt. 61-103, 62 FR 40902, July 30, 1997]




return arrow Back to Top



§61.107 Flight proficiency.



(a) General. A person who applies for a private pilot certificate must receive and log ground and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that apply to the aircraft category and class rating sought.



(b) Areas of operation. (1) For an airplane category rating with a single-engine class rating:



(i) Preflight preparation;



(ii) Preflight procedures;



(iii) Airport and seaplane base operations;



(iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;



(v) Performance maneuvers;



(vi) Ground reference maneuvers;



(vii) Navigation;



(viii) Slow flight and stalls;



(ix) Basic instrument maneuvers;



(x) Emergency operations;



(xi) Night operations, except as provided in §61.110 of this part; and



(xii) Postflight procedures.



§61.109 Aeronautical experience.



(a) For an airplane single-engine rating. Except as provided in paragraph (k) of this section, a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category and single-engine class rating must log at least 40 hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the areas of operation listed in §61.107(b)(1) of this part, and the training must include at least—



(1) 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a single-engine airplane;



(2) Except as provided in §61.110 of this part, 3 hours of night flight training in a single-engine airplane that includes—



(i) One cross-country flight of over 100 nautical miles total distance; and



(ii) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.



(3) 3 hours of flight training in a single-engine airplane on the control and maneuvering of an airplane solely by reference to instruments, including straight and level flight, constant airspeed climbs and descents, turns to a heading, recovery from unusual flight attitudes, radio communications, and the use of navigation systems/facilities and radar services appropriate to instrument flight;



(4) 3 hours of flight training with an authorized instructor in a single-engine airplane in preparation for the practical test, which must have been performed within the preceding 2 calendar months from the month of the test; and



(5) 10 hours of solo flight time in a single-engine airplane, consisting of at least—



(i) 5 hours of solo cross-country time;



(ii) One solo cross country flight of 150 nautical miles total distance, with full-stop landings at three points, and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and



(iii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower.


PA.I.A.K2


Privileges


(§61.113 Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command.-


(b) A private pilot may, for compensation or hire, act as pilot in command of an aircraft in connection with any business or employment if:



(1) The flight is only incidental to that business or employment; and



(2) The aircraft does not carry passengers or property for compensation or hire.




(d) A private pilot may act as pilot in command of a charitable, nonprofit, or community event flight described in §91.146, if the sponsor and pilot comply with the requirements of §91.146.



(e) A private pilot may be reimbursed for aircraft operating expenses that are directly related to search and location operations, provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees, and the operation is sanctioned and under the direction and control of:



(1) A local, State, or Federal agency; or



(2) An organization that conducts search and location operations.



(f) A private pilot who is an aircraft salesman and who has at least 200 hours of logged flight time may demonstrate an aircraft in flight to a prospective buyer.



(g) A private pilot who meets the requirements of §61.69 may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft towing a glider or unpowered ultralight vehicle.



(h) A private pilot may act as pilot in command for the purpose of conducting a production flight test in a light-sport aircraft intended for certification in the light-sport category under §21.190 of this chapter, provided that—



(1) The aircraft is a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft;



(2) The person has at least 100 hours of pilot-in-command time in the category and class of aircraft flown; and



(3) The person is familiar with the processes and procedures applicable to the conduct of production flight testing, to include operations conducted under a special flight permit and any associated operating limitations.



(i) A private pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft without holding a medical certificate issued under part 67 of this chapter provided the pilot holds a valid U.S. driver's license, meets the requirements of §61.23(c)(3), and complies with this section and all of the following conditions and limitations:



(1) The aircraft is authorized to carry not more than 6 occupants, has a maximum takeoff weight of not more than 6,000 pounds, and is operated with no more than five passengers on board; and



(2) The flight, including each portion of the flight, is not carried out—



(i) At an altitude that is more than 18,000 feet above mean sea level;



(ii) Outside the United States unless authorized by the country in which the flight is conducted; or



(iii) At an indicated airspeed exceeding 250 knots; and



(3) The pilot has available in his or her logbook—



(i) The completed medical examination checklist required under §68.7 of this chapter; and



(ii) The certificate of course completion required under §61.23(c)(3).



[Doc. No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, Apr. 4, 1997, as amended by Amdt. 61-110, 69 FR 44869, July 27, 2004; Amdt. 61-115, 72 FR 6910, Feb. 13, 2007; Amdt. 61-125, 75 FR 5220, Feb. 1, 2010; Docket FAA-2016-9157, Amdt. 61-140, 82 FR 3165, Jan. 11, 2017]





§61.2 Exercise of Privilege.



(a) Validity. No person may:



(1) Exercise privileges of a certificate, rating, endorsement, or authorization issued under this part if the certificate, rating or authorization is surrendered, suspended, revoked or expired.


§61.2 Exercise of Privilege


(b) Currency. No person may: (1)- Exercise privileges of an airman certificate, rating, endorsement, or authorization issued under this part unless that person meets the appropriate airman and medical recency requirements of this part




NOTE!! 14 CFR 61.47(b) gives the student pilot Pilot-in-Command (PIC) authority during the practical exam


§61.47 Status of an examiner who is authorized by the Administrator to conduct practical tests.



(a) An examiner represents the Administrator for the purpose of conducting practical tests for certificates and ratings issued under this part and to observe an applicant's ability to perform the areas of operation on the practical test.



(b) The examiner is not the pilot in command of the aircraft during the practical test unless the examiner agrees to act in that capacity for the flight or for a portion of the flight by prior arrangement with:



(1) The applicant; or



(2) A person who would otherwise act as pilot in command of the flight or for a portion of the flight.



(c) Notwithstanding the type of aircraft used during the practical test, the applicant and the examiner (and any other occupants authorized to be on board by the examiner) are not subject to the requirements or limitations for the carriage of passengers that are specified in this chapter.



[Doc. No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, Apr. 4, 1997; Amdt. 61-103, 62 FR 40897, July 30, 1997]



and limitations


(§61.113 Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command.-


(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (h) of this section, no person who holds a private pilot certificate may act as pilot in command of an aircraft that is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire; nor may that person, for compensation or hire, act as pilot in command of an aircraft.



(c) A private pilot may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating expenses of a flight with passengers, provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees.



(i) A private pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft without holding a medical certificate issued under part 67 of this chapter provided the pilot holds a valid U.S. driver's license, meets the requirements of §61.23(c)(3), and complies with this section and all of the following conditions and limitations:



(1) The aircraft is authorized to carry not more than 6 occupants, has a maximum takeoff weight of not more than 6,000 pounds, and is operated with no more than five passengers on board; and



(2) The flight, including each portion of the flight, is not carried out—



(i) At an altitude that is more than 18,000 feet above mean sea level;



(ii) Outside the United States unless authorized by the country in which the flight is conducted; or



(iii) At an indicated airspeed exceeding 250 knots; and



(3) The pilot has available in his or her logbook—



(i) The completed medical examination checklist required under §68.7 of this chapter; and



(ii) The certificate of course completion required under §61.23(c)(3).



[Doc. No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, Apr. 4, 1997, as amended by Amdt. 61-110, 69 FR 44869, July 27, 2004; Amdt. 61-115, 72 FR 6910, Feb. 13, 2007; Amdt. 61-125, 75 FR 5220, Feb. 1, 2010; Docket FAA-2016-9157, Amdt. 61-140, 82 FR 3165, Jan. 11, 2017]



§61.117 Private pilot privileges and limitations: Second in command of aircraft requiring more than one pilot.



Except as provided in §61.113 of this part, no private pilot may, for compensation or hire, act as second in command of an aircraft that is type certificated for more than one pilot, nor may that pilot act as second in command of such an aircraft that is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire.



[Doc. No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, Apr. 4, 1997; Amdt. 61-103, 62 FR 40904, July 30, 1997]


PA.I.A.K3


Medical certificates (§61.23 Medical certificates: Requirement and duration): class (1,2 and 3), expiration (>40, exp in 24 cal mths), privileges(1st class medical can be atp pilot, 2 class can be commercial pilot, 3 rd class can exercise private pilot cert),


temporary disqualifications (§61.53 Prohibition on operations during medical deficiency-- a person shall not act as pilot in command, or in any other capacity as a required pilot flight crewmember, while that person knows or has reason to know of any medical condition and/or medication currently being taken that would make the person unable to operate the aircraft in a safe manner.).



AIM—Fitness for Flight 8-1-1


Other medical


conditions may be temporarily disqualifying, such as


acute infections, anemia, and peptic ulcer.



AIM – Fitness for Flight 8-1-1


CAUTION−


The CFRs prohibit a pilot who possesses a current


medical certificate from performing crewmember duties


while the pilot has a known medical condition or increase


of a known medical condition that would make the pilot


unable to meet the standards for the medical certificate.





AIM


2. The CFRs prohibit pilots from performing


crewmember duties while using any medication that


affects the faculties in any way contrary to safety. The


safest rule is not to fly as a crewmember while taking


any medication, unless approved to do so by the FAA.



PA.I.A.K4


Documents required to exercise private pilot privileges (§61.3 Requirement for certificates, ratings, and authorizations (this section is about what documentation is required on your person to OPERATE a civil aircraft NOT what is needed to get a certification)-

(1) Pilot Lic., (Pilot certificate(s))

(2) Official Photo ID, (Officially issued by government/government contractor)

(3) Med cert).


Risk Management


The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:


PA.I.A.R1


Failure to distinguish proficiency (fully competent—in all areas of 61.107) (§61.107 Flight proficiency) versus currency (meeting bare minimum legal requirements, 14 CFR 61.2(b)(1)-Currency, . §61.56 Flight review(c)(1)-every 24 calendar months, §61.57 Recent flight experience: Pilot in command(a) 3 takeoffs/3 landings in preceding 90-days(to carry passengers)-


To carry passengers at night:

(b) Night takeoff and landing experience. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, no person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, unless within the preceding 90 days that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, and—



(i) That person acted as sole manipulator of the flight controls; and



(ii) The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type (if a type rating is required).


PA.I.A.R2


Failure to set personal minimums.(9 sm vsby, 10k CIG)


PA.I.A.R3


Failure to ensure fitness for flight.(PAVE(Pilot, Aircraft, Environment, External), IMSAFE(Illness, Medication, Stress, Alcohol, Fatigue, Eating))


PA.I.A.R4


Flying unfamiliar aircraft, or operating with unfamiliar flight display systems, and avionics.


Skills


The applicant demonstrates the ability to:


PA.I.A.S1


Apply requirements to act as PIC under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) in a scenario given by the evaluator.










Task


B. Airworthiness Requirements


References


14 CFR parts 39, 43, 91; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-25


Objective


To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with airworthiness requirements, including aircraft certificates.


Knowledge


The applicant demonstrates understanding of:




PA.I.B.K1a

PA.I.B.K1

General airworthiness requirements and compliance for airplanes, including:


a. Certificate location and expiration dates

Subpart C—Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements



§91.203 Civil aircraft: Certifications required.



(a) Except as provided in §91.715, no person may operate a civil aircraft unless it has within it the following:



(1) An appropriate and current airworthiness certificate. Each U.S. airworthiness certificate used to comply with this subparagraph (except a special flight permit, a copy of the applicable operations specifications issued under §21.197(c) of this chapter, appropriate sections of the air carrier manual required by parts 121 and 135 of this chapter containing that portion of the operations specifications issued under §21.197(c), or an authorization under §91.611) must have on it the registration number assigned to the aircraft under part 47 of this chapter. However, the airworthiness certificate need not have on it an assigned special identification number before 10 days after that number is first affixed to the aircraft. A revised airworthiness certificate having on it an assigned special identification number, that has been affixed to an aircraft, may only be obtained upon application to an FAA Flight Standards district office.



(2) An effective U.S. registration certificate issued to its owner or, for operation within the United States, the second copy of the Aircraft registration Application as provided for in §47.31(c), a Certificate of Aircraft registration as provided in part 48, or a registration certification issued under the laws of a foreign country.



(b) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless the airworthiness certificate required by paragraph (a) of this section or a special flight authorization issued under §91.715 is displayed at the cabin or cockpit entrance so that it is legible to passengers or crew.



From AFH(2016) 2-2

It must be determined by the pilot that the following documents are, as appropriate, on board, attached, or affixed to the airplane:


(1)Original Airworthiness Certificate (14 CFR part 91, section 91.203)


(2)Original Registration Certificate (14 CFR part 91, section 91.203)


(3)Radio station license for flights outside the United States or airplanes greater than 12,500 pounds (Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rule)


(4)Operating limitations, which may be in the form of an FAA-approved AFM/POH, placards, instrument markings, or any combination thereof (14 CFR part 91, section 91.9)


(5)Official weight and balance (back of POH)


(6)Compass deviation card (14 CFR part 23, section 23.1547)


(7)External data plate (14 CFR part 45, section 45.11)


PA.I.B.K1b


b. Required inspections and aircraft logbook documentation

INSPECTIONS


A1VTAPE


§91.409 Inspections.



Annual (91.409 Inspections)


(a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may operate an aircraft unless, within the preceding 12 calendar months, it has had—



(1) An annual inspection in accordance with part 43 of this chapter and has been approved for return to service by a person authorized by §43.7 of this chapter



100-hr(91.409 Inspections)


(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may operate an aircraft carrying any person (other than a crewmember) for hire, and no person may give flight instruction for hire in an aircraft which that person provides, unless within the preceding 100 hours of time in service the aircraft has received an annual or 100-hour inspection and been approved for return to service in accordance with part 43 of this chapter or has received an inspection for the issuance of an airworthiness certificate in accordance with part 21 of this chapter.


VOR check (91.171)(if include 30-day VOR ck if flying IFR)


Transponder -24 mth chk (§91.413 ATC transponder tests and inspections., 24 cal mth check)


Altimeter/Pitot-static 24 mth ck (if IFR) (§91.411 Altimeter system and altitude reporting equipment tests and inspections.)


Emergency Locator Transmitter(ELT) – 12 mth ck (ELT) (91.207(d)—12 mth check, also check batteries if <50% power, 91.207(d))



from AFH (FAA-H-8083-3B)


Current status of life limited parts per Type Certificate Data Sheets (TCDS) (14 CFR part 91, section 91.417)


Status, compliance, logbook entries for airworthiness directives (ADs) (14 CFR part 91, section 91.417(a)(2)(v))


Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Form 337, Major Repair or Alteration (14 CFR part 91, section 91.417)


Inoperative equipment (14 CFR part 91, section 91.213)



Airworthiness Directive (AD) compliance for specific airplane 172R Serial # (see AD compliance log)



Logbook documentation


§43.11 Content, form, and disposition of records for inspections conducted under parts 91 and 125 and §§135.411(a)(1) and 135.419 of this chapter.


(a)


(4) Except for progressive inspections, if the aircraft is found to be airworthy and approved for return to service, the following or a similarly worded statement—“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and was determined to be in airworthy condition.”



(5) Except for progressive inspections, if the aircraft is not approved for return to service because of needed maintenance, noncompliance with applicable specifications, airworthiness directives, or other approved data, the following or a similarly worded statement—“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and a list of discrepancies and unairworthy items dated (date) has been provided for the aircraft owner or operator.”



(d) (b) Listing of discrepancies and placards. If the person performing any inspection required by part 91 or 125 or §135.411(a)(1) of this chapter finds that the aircraft is unairworthy or does not meet the applicable type certificate data, airworthiness directives, or other approved data upon which its airworthiness depends, that persons must give the owner or lessee a signed and dated list of those discrepancies. For those items permitted to be inoperative under §91.213(d)(2) of this chapter, that person shall place a placard, that meets the aircraft's airworthiness certification regulations, on each inoperative instrument and the cockpit control of each item of inoperative equipment, marking it “Inoperative,” and shall add the items to the signed and dated list of discrepancies given to the owner or lessee.



Log book entries after ANNUAL and 100-hr inspections:


APPROVED


—“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and was determined to be in airworthy condition.”


DISAPPROVED


—“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and a list of discrepancies and unairworthy items dated (date) has been provided for the aircraft owner or operator.”




§43.9 Content, form, and disposition of maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration records (except inspections performed in accordance with part 91, part 125, §135.411(a)(1), and §135.419 of this chapter).



(a) Maintenance record entries. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each person who maintains, performs preventive maintenance, rebuilds, or alters an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part shall make an entry in the maintenance record of that equipment containing the following information:



(1) A description (or reference to data acceptable to the Administrator) of work performed.



(2) The date of completion of the work performed.



(3) The name of the person performing the work if other than the person specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.



(4) If the work performed on the aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part has been performed satisfactorily, the signature, certificate number, and kind of certificate held by the person approving the work. The signature constitutes the approval for return to service only for the work performed.



(b) Each holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an operating certificate issued under Part 121 or 135, that is required by its approved operations specifications to provide for a continuous airworthiness maintenance program, shall make a record of the maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration, on aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts which it operates in accordance with the applicable provisions of Part 121 or 135 of this chapter, as appropriate.



(c) This section does not apply to persons performing inspections in accordance with Part 91, 125, §135.411(a)(1), or §135.419 of this chapter.



(d) In addition to the entry required by paragraph (a) of this section, major repairs and major alterations shall be entered on a form, and the form disposed of, in the manner prescribed in appendix B, by the person performing the work.



[Amdt. 43-23, 47 FR 41085, Sept. 16, 1982, as amended by Amdt. 43-37, 66 FR 21066, Apr. 27, 2001; Amdt. 43-39, 69 FR 44863, July 27, 2004]





§43.7 Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.



(a) Except as provided in this section and §43.17, no person, other than the Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service after it has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.



(b) The holder of a mechanic certificate or an inspection authorization may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service as provided in Part 65 of this chapter.



(c) The holder of a repair station certificate may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service as provided in Part 145 of this chapter.



(d) A manufacturer may approve for return to service any aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part which that manufacturer has worked on under §43.3(j). However, except for minor alterations, the work must have been done in accordance with technical data approved by the Administrator.



(e) The holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an operating certificate issued under Part 121 or 135, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service as provided in Part 121 or 135 of this chapter, as applicable.



(f) A person holding at least a private pilot certificate may approve an aircraft for return to service after performing preventive maintenance under the provisions of §43.3(g).



(g) The holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate in light-sport category for return to service, as provided in part 65 of this chapter.



(h) The holder of at least a sport pilot certificate may approve an aircraft owned or operated by that pilot and issued a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category for return to service after performing preventive maintenance under the provisions of §43.3(g).



[Amdt. 43-23, 47 FR 41084, Sept. 16, 1982, as amended by Amdt. 43-36, 61 FR 19501, May 1, 1996; Amdt. 43-37, 66 FR 21066, Apr. 27, 2001; Amdt. 43-39, 69 FR 44863, July 27, 2004]



PA.I.B.K1c


c. Airworthiness Directives and Special Airworthiness Information Bulletins

14 CFR PART 39—AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES


§39.3 Definition of airworthiness directives.



FAA's airworthiness directives are legally enforceable rules that apply to the following products: aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances.



§39.5 When does FAA issue airworthiness directives?



FAA issues an airworthiness directive addressing a product when we find that:



(a) An unsafe condition exists in the product; and



(b) The condition is likely to exist or develop in other products of the same type design.


§39.11 What actions do airworthiness directives require?



Airworthiness directives specify inspections you must carry out, conditions and limitations you must comply with, and any actions you must take to resolve an unsafe condition.



Special Airworthiness Information Bulletins


A Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin (SAIB) is an information tool that alerts, educates, and makes recommendations to the aviation community. SAIBs contain non-regulatory information and guidance that does not meet the criteria for an Airworthiness Directive (AD).


PA.I.B.K1d


d. Purpose and procedure for obtaining a special flight permit

14 CFR 21


PART 21—CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND ARTICLES


Purpose for requesting a special flt permit

§21.197 Special flight permits.



(a) A special flight permit may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet applicable airworthiness requirements but is capable of safe flight, for the following purposes:



(1) Flying the aircraft to a base where repairs, alterations, or maintenance are to be performed, or to a point of storage.


Procedure for requesting a special flight permit:

§21.199 Issue of special flight permits.



(a) Except as provided in §21.197(c), an applicant for a special flight permit must submit (to the local FSDO) a statement in a form and manner prescribed by the FAA, indicating—



(1) The purpose of the flight.



(2) The proposed itinerary.



(3) The crew required to operate the aircraft and its equipment, e.g., pilot, co-pilot, navigator, etc.



(4) The ways, if any, in which the aircraft does not comply with the applicable airworthiness requirements.



(5) Any restriction the applicant considers necessary for safe operation of the aircraft.



(6) Any other information considered necessary by the FAA for the purpose of prescribing operating limitations.



(b) The FAA may make, or require the applicant to make appropriate inspections or tests necessary for safety.


PA.I.B.K2


Pilot-performed preventive maintenance.

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43—Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance


(c) Preventive maintenance. Preventive maintenance is limited to the following work, provided it does not involve complex assembly operations:



(1) Removal, installation, and repair of landing gear tires.



(2) Replacing elastic shock absorber cords on landing gear.



(3) Servicing landing gear shock struts by adding oil, air, or both.



(4) Servicing landing gear wheel bearings, such as cleaning and greasing.



(5) Replacing defective safety wiring or cotter keys.



(6) Lubrication not requiring disassembly other than removal of nonstructural items such as cover plates, cowlings, and fairings.



(7) Making simple fabric patches not requiring rib stitching or the removal of structural parts or control surfaces. In the case of balloons, the making of small fabric repairs to envelopes (as defined in, and in accordance with, the balloon manufacturers' instructions) not requiring load tape repair or replacement.



(8) Replenishing hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic reservoir.



(9) Refinishing decorative coating of fuselage, balloon baskets, wings tail group surfaces (excluding balanced control surfaces), fairings, cowlings, landing gear, cabin, or cockpit interior when removal or disassembly of any primary structure or operating system is not required.



(10) Applying preservative or protective material to components where no disassembly of any primary structure or operating system is involved and where such coating is not prohibited or is not contrary to good practices.



(11) Repairing upholstery and decorative furnishings of the cabin, cockpit, or balloon basket interior when the repairing does not require disassembly of any primary structure or operating system or interfere with an operating system or affect the primary structure of the aircraft.



(12) Making small simple repairs to fairings, nonstructural cover plates, cowlings, and small patches and reinforcements not changing the contour so as to interfere with proper air flow.



(13) Replacing side windows where that work does not interfere with the structure or any operating system such as controls, electrical equipment, etc.



(14) Replacing safety belts.



(15) Replacing seats or seat parts with replacement parts approved for the aircraft, not involving disassembly of any primary structure or operating system.



(16) Trouble shooting and repairing broken circuits in landing light wiring circuits.



(17) Replacing bulbs, reflectors, and lenses of position and landing lights.



(18) Replacing wheels and skis where no weight and balance computation is involved.



(19) Replacing any cowling not requiring removal of the propeller or disconnection of flight controls.



(20) Replacing or cleaning spark plugs and setting of spark plug gap clearance.



(21) Replacing any hose connection except hydraulic connections.



(22) Replacing prefabricated fuel lines.



(23) Cleaning or replacing fuel and oil strainers or filter elements.



(24) Replacing and servicing batteries.



(25) Cleaning of balloon burner pilot and main nozzles in accordance with the balloon manufacturer's instructions.



(26) Replacement or adjustment of nonstructural standard fasteners incidental to operations.



(27) The interchange of balloon baskets and burners on envelopes when the basket or burner is designated as interchangeable in the balloon type certificate data and the baskets and burners are specifically designed for quick removal and installation.



(28) The installations of anti-misfueling devices to reduce the diameter of fuel tank filler openings provided the specific device has been made a part of the aircraft type certificiate data by the aircraft manufacturer, the aircraft manufacturer has provided FAA-approved instructions for installation of the specific device, and installation does not involve the disassembly of the existing tank filler opening.



(29) Removing, checking, and replacing magnetic chip detectors.



(30) The inspection and maintenance tasks prescribed and specifically identified as preventive maintenance in a primary category aircraft type certificate or supplemental type certificate holder's approved special inspection and preventive maintenance program when accomplished on a primary category aircraft provided:



(i) They are performed by the holder of at least a private pilot certificate issued under part 61 who is the registered owner (including co-owners) of the affected aircraft and who holds a certificate of competency for the affected aircraft (1) issued by a school approved under §147.21(e) of this chapter; (2) issued by the holder of the production certificate for that primary category aircraft that has a special training program approved under §21.24 of this subchapter; or (3) issued by another entity that has a course approved by the Administrator; and



(ii) The inspections and maintenance tasks are performed in accordance with instructions contained by the special inspection and preventive maintenance program approved as part of the aircraft's type design or supplemental type design.



(31) Removing and replacing self-contained, front instrument panel-mounted navigation and communication devices that employ tray-mounted connectors that connect the unit when the unit is installed into the instrument panel, (excluding automatic flight control systems, transponders, and microwave frequency distance measuring equipment (DME)). The approved unit must be designed to be readily and repeatedly removed and replaced, and pertinent instructions must be provided. Prior to the unit's intended use, and operational check must be performed in accordance with the applicable sections of part 91 of this chapter.







NOTE



§91.407 Operation after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.



(a) No person may operate any aircraft that has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration unless—



(1) It has been approved for return to service by a person authorized under §43.7 of this chapter; and



(2) The maintenance record entry required by §43.9 or §43.11, as applicable, of this chapter has been made.





§43.7 Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.





(f) A person holding at least a private pilot certificate may approve an aircraft for return to service after performing preventive maintenance under the provisions of §43.3(g).


PA.I.B.K3


Equipment requirements for day and night VFR flight, to include:

14 CFR 91.205-




§91.205 Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements.



Link to an amendment published at 81 FR 96700, Dec. 30, 2016.



(a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(3) and (e) of this section, no person may operate a powered civil aircraft with a standard category U.S. airworthiness certificate in any operation described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section unless that aircraft contains the instruments and equipment specified in those paragraphs (or FAA-approved equivalents) for that type of operation, and those instruments and items of equipment are in operable condition.



(b) Visual-flight rules (day). For VFR flight during the day, the following instruments and equipment are required:



(1) Airspeed indicator.



(2) Altimeter.



(3) Magnetic direction indicator.



(4) Tachometer for each engine.



(5) Oil pressure gauge for each engine using pressure system.



(6) Temperature gauge for each liquid-cooled engine.



(7) Oil temperature gauge for each air-cooled engine.



(8) Manifold pressure gauge for each altitude engine.



(9) Fuel gauge indicating the quantity of fuel in each tank.



(10) Landing gear position indicator, if the aircraft has a retractable landing gear.



(11) For small civil airplanes certificated after March 11, 1996, in accordance with part 23 of this chapter, an approved aviation red or aviation white anticollision light system. In the event of failure of any light of the anticollision light system, operation of the aircraft may continue to a location where repairs or replacement can be made.



(12) If the aircraft is operated for hire over water and beyond power-off gliding distance from shore, approved flotation gear readily available to each occupant and, unless the aircraft is operating under part 121 of this subchapter, at least one pyrotechnic signaling device. As used in this section, “shore” means that area of the land adjacent to the water which is above the high water mark and excludes land areas which are intermittently under water.



(13) An approved safety belt with an approved metal-to-metal latching device for each occupant 2 years of age or older.



(14) For small civil airplanes manufactured after July 18, 1978, an approved shoulder harness for each front seat. The shoulder harness must be designed to protect the occupant from serious head injury when the occupant experiences the ultimate inertia forces specified in §23.561(b)(2) of this chapter. Each shoulder harness installed at a flight crewmember station must permit the crewmember, when seated and with the safety belt and shoulder harness fastened, to perform all functions necessary for flight operations. For purposes of this paragraph—



(i) The date of manufacture of an airplane is the date the inspection acceptance records reflect that the airplane is complete and meets the FAA-approved type design data; and



(ii) A front seat is a seat located at a flight crewmember station or any seat located alongside such a seat.



(15) An emergency locator transmitter, if required by §91.207.



(16) For normal, utility, and acrobatic category airplanes with a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 9 or less, manufactured after December 12, 1986, a shoulder harness for—



(i) Each front seat that meets the requirements of §23.785 (g) and (h) of this chapter in effect on December 12, 1985;



(ii) Each additional seat that meets the requirements of §23.785(g) of this chapter in effect on December 12, 1985.



(17) For rotorcraft manufactured after September 16, 1992, a shoulder harness for each seat that meets the requirements of §27.2 or §29.2 of this chapter in effect on September 16, 1991.



(c) Visual flight rules (night). For VFR flight at night, the following instruments and equipment are required:



(1) Instruments and equipment specified in paragraph (b) of this section.



(2) Approved position lights.



(3) An approved aviation red or aviation white anticollision light system on all U.S.-registered civil aircraft. Anticollision light systems initially installed after August 11, 1971, on aircraft for which a type certificate was issued or applied for before August 11, 1971, must at least meet the anticollision light standards of part 23, 25, 27, or 29 of this chapter, as applicable, that were in effect on August 10, 1971, except that the color may be either aviation red or aviation white. In the event of failure of any light of the anticollision light system, operations with the aircraft may be continued to a stop where repairs or replacement can be made.



(4) If the aircraft is operated for hire, one electric landing light.



(5) An adequate source of electrical energy for all installed electrical and radio equipment.



(6) One spare set of fuses, or three spare fuses of each kind required, that are accessible to the pilot in flight.





PA.I.B.K3a


a. Flying with inoperative equipment


Can fly with non-91.205 equipment as long as inoperative equipment is deactivated and placarded “inoperative” (INOP sticker) and recorded in maintenance records following 91.213(d) process OR Can fly / operate under a special flight permit issued in accordance with §§21.197 and 21.199 of this chapter. with special flight permit



§91.213 Inoperative instruments and equipment



(d) Except for operations conducted in accordance with paragraph (a) or (c) of this section, a person may takeoff an aircraft in operations conducted under this part with inoperative instruments and equipment without an approved Minimum Equipment List provided—



(1) The flight operation is conducted in a—



(i) Rotorcraft, non-turbine-powered airplane, glider, lighter-than-air aircraft, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft, for which a master minimum equipment list has not been developed; or



(ii) Small rotorcraft, nonturbine-powered small airplane, glider, or lighter-than-air aircraft for which a Master Minimum Equipment List has been developed; and



(2) The inoperative instruments and equipment are not—



(i) Part of the VFR-day type certification instruments and equipment prescribed in the applicable airworthiness regulations under which the aircraft was type certificated;



(ii) Indicated as required on the aircraft's equipment list, or on the Kinds of Operations Equipment List for the kind of flight operation being conducted;



(iii) Required by §91.205 or any other rule of this part for the specific kind of flight operation being conducted; or



(iv) Required to be operational by an airworthiness directive; and



(3) The inoperative instruments and equipment are—



(i) Removed from the aircraft, the cockpit control placarded, and the maintenance recorded in accordance with §43.9 of this chapter; or



(ii) Deactivated and placarded “Inoperative.” If deactivation of the inoperative instrument or equipment involves maintenance, it must be accomplished and recorded in accordance with part 43 of this chapter; and



(4) A determination is made by a pilot, who is certificated and appropriately rated under part 61 of this chapter, or by a person, who is certificated and appropriately rated to perform maintenance on the aircraft, that the inoperative instrument or equipment does not constitute a hazard to the aircraft.



An aircraft with inoperative instruments or equipment as provided in paragraph (d) of this section is considered to be in a properly altered condition acceptable to the Administrator.



(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an aircraft with inoperable instruments or equipment may be operated under a special flight permit issued in accordance with §§21.197 and 21.199 of this chapter.



[Doc. No. 18334, 54 FR 34304, Aug. 18, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 91-280, 68 FR 54560, Sept. 17, 2003; Amdt. 91-282, 69 FR 44880, July 27, 2004]







NOTE-Flight Manual/POH required to be in airplane for flight


§91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.



(a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft without complying with the operating limitations specified in the approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual, markings, and placards, or as otherwise prescribed by the certificating authority of the country of registry.



(b) No person may operate a U.S.-registered civil aircraft—



(1) For which an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual is required by §21.5 of this chapter unless there is available in the aircraft a current, approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual


(2) For which an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual is not required by §21.5 of this chapter, unless there is available in the aircraft a current approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual, approved manual material, markings, and placards, or any combination thereof.



(c) No person may operate a U.S.-registered civil aircraft unless that aircraft is identified in accordance with part 45 of this chapter.



(d) Any person taking off or landing a helicopter certificated under part 29 of this chapter at a heliport constructed over water may make such momentary flight as is necessary for takeoff or landing through the prohibited range of the limiting height-speed envelope established for the helicopter if that flight through the prohibited range takes place over water on which a safe ditching can be accomplished and if the helicopter is amphibious or is equipped with floats or other emergency flotation gear adequate to accomplish a safe emergency ditching on open water.


N-number displayed required for flight


§45.23 Display of marks; general.



(a) Each operator of an aircraft must display on that aircraft marks consisting of the Roman capital letter “N” (denoting United States registration) followed by the registration number of the aircraft. Each suffix letter used in the marks displayed must also be a Roman capital letter.


PA.I.B.K3b


b. Using an approved Minimum Equipment List (MEL)

§91.213 Inoperative instruments and equipment.



(a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may take off an aircraft with inoperative instruments or equipment installed unless the following conditions are met:



(1) An approved Minimum Equipment List exists for that aircraft.



(2) The aircraft has within it a letter of authorization, issued by the FAA Flight Standards district office having jurisdiction over the area in which the operator is located, authorizing operation of the aircraft under the Minimum Equipment List. The letter of authorization may be obtained by written request of the airworthiness certificate holder. The Minimum Equipment List and the letter of authorization constitute a supplemental type certificate for the aircraft.



(3) The approved Minimum Equipment List must—



(i) Be prepared in accordance with the limitations specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and



(ii) Provide for the operation of the aircraft with the instruments and equipment in an inoperable condition.



(4) The aircraft records available to the pilot must include an entry describing the inoperable instruments and equipment.



(5) The aircraft is operated under all applicable conditions and limitations contained in the Minimum Equipment List and the letter authorizing the use of the list.



(b) The following instruments and equipment may not be included in a Minimum Equipment List:



(1) Instruments and equipment that are either specifically or otherwise required by the airworthiness requirements under which the aircraft is type certificated and which are essential for safe operations under all operating conditions.



(2) Instruments and equipment required by an airworthiness directive to be in operable condition unless the airworthiness directive provides otherwise.



(3) Instruments and equipment required for specific operations by this part.



(c) A person authorized to use an approved Minimum Equipment List issued for a specific aircraft under subpart K of this part, part 121, 125, or 135 of this chapter must use that Minimum Equipment List to comply with the requirements in this section.


PA.I.B.K3c


c. Kinds of Operation Equipment List (KOEL)

KOELs are Airplane Manufacturer required equipment for certain types of flight (VFR, IFR, VFR night)


Cessna 172R doesn’t have a Kinds of Operation Equipment List but has an aircraft equipment list



KINDS OF OPERATION LIMITS


The airplane as delivered is equipped for day VFR and may be


equipped for night VFR and/or IFR operations. FAR Part 91


establishes the minimum required instrumentation and equipment


for these operations. The reference to types of flight operations on


the operating limitations placard reflects equipment installed at the


time of Airworthiness Certificate issuance.


Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited.


PLACARDS


The following information must be displayed in the form of


composite or individual placards.


1. In full view of the pilot: (The "DAY-NIGHT-VFR-IFR" entry,


shown on the example below, will vary as the airplane is


equipped).


The markings and placards installed in this airplane contain


operating limitations which must be complied with when operating


this airplane in the Normal Category. Other operating limitations


which must be complied with when operating this airplane in this


category or in the Utility Category are contained in the Pilot's


Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual.


Normal Category No acrobatic maneuvers, including spins,


approved.


Utility Category No acrobatic maneuvers approved,


except those listed in the Pilot's


Operating Handbook.


Baggage compartment and rear seat


must not be occupied.


Spin Recovery Opposite rudder - forward elevator -


neutralize controls.


Flight into known icing conditions prohibited.


This airplane is certified for the following flight operations as of


date of original airworthiness certificate:


DAY-NIGHT-VFR-IFR







Kinds of Operations Equipment List


(KOEL). If the airplane (or air carrier


certificate holder) does not have an MEL,


but the airplane’s manufacturer publishes a


KOEL for that aircraft, then all equipment


the KOEL lists as required for a given type


of flight (day, night, IFR) must be operable


for the flight to dispatch. In some cases a


KOEL may specify components must meet


Time Before Overhaul (TBO) requirements


for certain operations (e.g., flight in icing).


Note many owners of decades-old airplanes


have original Owners Manuals that at times may have very useful operational data. In regulators’


eyes, however, only the manufacturer’s current handbook revision and its limitations apply.



Aircraft equipment list. If the aircraft’s equipment list identifies certain items as required for


flight then, in the absence of an MEL or KOEL this guidance applies.



from :

FAASafety Link


§91.213 Inoperative instruments and equipment.



(a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may take off an aircraft with inoperative instruments or equipment installed unless the following conditions are met:



(1) An approved Minimum Equipment List exists for that aircraft.



(2) The aircraft has within it a letter of authorization, issued by the FAA Flight Standards district office having jurisdiction over the area in which the operator is located, authorizing operation of the aircraft under the Minimum Equipment List. The letter of authorization may be obtained by written request of the airworthiness certificate holder. The Minimum Equipment List and the letter of authorization constitute a supplemental type certificate for the aircraft.



(3) The approved Minimum Equipment List must—



(i) Be prepared in accordance with the limitations specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and



(ii) Provide for the operation of the aircraft with the instruments and equipment in an inoperable condition.



(4) The aircraft records available to the pilot must include an entry describing the inoperable instruments and equipment.



(5) The aircraft is operated under all applicable conditions and limitations contained in the Minimum Equipment List and the letter authorizing the use of the list.



(b) The following instruments and equipment may not be included in a Minimum Equipment List:



(1) Instruments and equipment that are either specifically or otherwise required by the airworthiness requirements under which the aircraft is type certificated and which are essential for safe operations under all operating conditions.



(2) Instruments and equipment required by an airworthiness directive to be in operable condition unless the airworthiness directive provides otherwise.



(3) Instruments and equipment required for specific operations by this part.



(c) A person authorized to use an approved Minimum Equipment List issued for a specific aircraft under subpart K of this part, part 121, 125, or 135 of this chapter must use that Minimum Equipment List to comply with the requirements in this section.



(d) Except for operations conducted in accordance with paragraph (a) or (c) of this section, a person may takeoff an aircraft in operations conducted under this part with inoperative instruments and equipment without an approved Minimum Equipment List provided—



(1) The flight operation is conducted in a—



(i) Rotorcraft, non-turbine-powered airplane, glider, lighter-than-air aircraft, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft, for which a master minimum equipment list has not been developed; or



(ii) Small rotorcraft, non-turbine-powered small airplane, glider, or lighter-than-air aircraft for which a Master Minimum Equipment List has been developed; and



(2) The inoperative instruments and equipment are not—



(i) Part of the VFR-day type certification instruments and equipment prescribed in the applicable airworthiness regulations under which the aircraft was type certificated;



(ii) Indicated as required on the aircraft's equipment list, or on the Kinds of Operations Equipment List for the kind of flight operation being conducted;


PA.I.B.K3d


d. Required discrepancy records or placards


Discrepancy records (from Annual and 100-hr?)


§43.11 Content, form, and disposition of records for inspections conducted under parts 91 and 125 and §§135.411(a)(1) and 135.419 of this chapter.



(a) Maintenance record entries. The person approving or disapproving for return to service an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part after any inspection performed in accordance with part 91, 125, §135.411(a)(1), or §135.419 shall make an entry in the maintenance record of that equipment containing the following information:



(1) The type of inspection and a brief description of the extent of the inspection.



(2) The date of the inspection and aircraft total time in service.



(3) The signature, the certificate number, and kind of certificate held by the person approving or disapproving for return to service the aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, component part, or portions thereof.



(4) Except for progressive inspections, if the aircraft is found to be airworthy and approved for return to service, the following or a similarly worded statement—“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and was determined to be in airworthy condition.”



(5) Except for progressive inspections, if the aircraft is not approved for return to service because of needed maintenance, noncompliance with applicable specifications, airworthiness directives, or other approved data, the following or a similarly worded statement—“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and a list of discrepancies and unairworthy items dated (date) has been provided for the aircraft owner or operator.”



(6) For progressive inspections, the following or a similarly worded statement—“I certify that in accordance with a progressive inspection program, a routine inspection of (identify whether aircraft or components) and a detailed inspection of (identify components) were performed and the (aircraft or components) are (approved or disapproved) for return to service.” If disapproved, the entry will further state “and a list of discrepancies and unairworthy items dated (date) has been provided to the aircraft owner or operator.”



(7) If an inspection is conducted under an inspection program provided for in part 91, 125, or §135.411(a)(1), the entry must identify the inspection program, that part of the inspection program accomplished, and contain a statement that the inspection was performed in accordance with the inspections and procedures for that particular program.



(b) Listing of discrepancies and placards. If the person performing any inspection required by part 91 or 125 or §135.411(a)(1) of this chapter finds that the aircraft is unairworthy or does not meet the applicable type certificate data, airworthiness directives, or other approved data upon which its airworthiness depends, that persons must give the owner or lessee a signed and dated list of those discrepancies. For those items permitted to be inoperative under §91.213(d)(2) of this chapter, that person shall place a placard, that meets the aircraft's airworthiness certification regulations, on each inoperative instrument and the cockpit control of each item of inoperative equipment, marking it “Inoperative,” and shall add the items to the signed and dated list of discrepancies given to the owner or lessee.



[Amdt. 43-23, 47 FR 41085, Sept. 16, 1982, as amended by Amdt. 43-30, 53 FR 50195, Dec. 13, 1988; Amdt. 43-36, 61 FR 19501, May 1, 1996; 71 FR 44188, Aug. 4, 2006]




Placards:


Maintenance placards


§43.11 Content, form, and disposition of records for inspections conducted under parts 91 and 125 and §§135.411(a)(1) and 135.419 of this chapter.


(b) Listing of discrepancies and placards. If the person performing any inspection required by part 91 or 125 or §135.411(a)(1) of this chapter finds that the aircraft is unairworthy or does not meet the applicable type certificate data, airworthiness directives, or other approved data upon which its airworthiness depends, that persons must give the owner or lessee a signed and dated list of those discrepancies. For those items permitted to be inoperative under §91.213(d)(2) of this chapter, that person shall place a placard, that meets the aircraft's airworthiness certification regulations, on each inoperative instrument and the cockpit control of each item of inoperative equipment, marking it “Inoperative,” and shall add the items to the signed and dated list of discrepancies given to the owner or lessee.




Operational Placards



§91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.



(a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft without complying with the operating limitations specified in the approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual, markings, and placards, or as otherwise prescribed by the certificating authority of the country of registry.



(b) No person may operate a U.S.-registered civil aircraft—



(1) For which an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual is required by §21.5 of this chapter unless there is available in the aircraft a current, approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual or the manual provided for in §121.141(b); and



(2) For which an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual is not required by §21.5 of this chapter, unless there is available in the aircraft a current approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual, approved manual material, markings, and placards, or any combination thereof.



(c) No person may operate a U.S.-registered civil aircraft unless that aircraft is identified in accordance with part 45 of this chapter.



(d) Any person taking off or landing a helicopter certificated under part 29 of this chapter at a heliport constructed over water may make such momentary flight as is necessary for takeoff or landing through the prohibited range of the limiting height-speed envelope established for the helicopter if that flight through the prohibited range takes place over water on which a safe ditching can be accomplished and if the helicopter is amphibious or is equipped with floats or other emergency flotation gear adequate to accomplish a safe emergency ditching on open water.




§21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.



(a) With each airplane or rotorcraft not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual and having no flight time before March 1, 1979, the holder of a type certificate (including amended or supplemental type certificates) or the licensee of a type certificate must make available to the owner at the time of delivery of the aircraft a current approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.



(b) The Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual required by paragraph (a) of this section must contain the following information:



(1) The operating limitations and information required to be furnished in an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual or in manual material, markings, and placards, by the applicable regulations under which the airplane or rotorcraft was type certificated.



(2) The maximum ambient atmospheric temperature for which engine cooling was demonstrated must be stated in the performance information section of the Flight Manual, if the applicable regulations under which the aircraft was type certificated do not require ambient temperature on engine cooling operating limitations in the Flight Manual.



[Amdt. 21-46, 43 FR 2316, Jan. 16, 1978, as amended by Amdt. 21-92, 74 FR 53385, Oct. 16, 2009]


Risk Management


The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:


PA.I.B.R1


Inoperative equipment discovered prior to flight.

If not marked INOP, apply 91.213(d) scenario and either cancel the flight or have A&P mechanic INOP placard and log INOP equip. into maint. Records or get at 21.199 Special Flight Permit from the local FSDO (and fly another day)


Skills


The applicant demonstrates the ability to:


PA.I.B.S1


Locate and describe aircraft airworthiness and registration information

Airworthiness definition: (14 CFR 3.5-- §3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.


Airworthy means the aircraft conforms to its type design and is in a condition for safe operation.


(14 CFR 91.7)

§91.7 Civil aircraft airworthiness.



(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition.



(b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight. The pilot in command shall discontinue the flight when unairworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur.



Subpart C—Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements



§91.203 Civil aircraft: Certifications required.



(a) Except as provided in §91.715, no person may operate a civil aircraft unless it has within it the following:



(1) An appropriate and current airworthiness certificate. Each U.S. airworthiness certificate used to comply with this subparagraph (except a special flight permit, a copy of the applicable operations specifications issued under §21.197(c) of this chapter, appropriate sections of the air carrier manual required by parts 121 and 135 of this chapter containing that portion of the operations specifications issued under §21.197(c), or an authorization under §91.611) must have on it the registration number assigned to the aircraft under part 47 of this chapter. However, the airworthiness certificate need not have on it an assigned special identification number before 10 days after that number is first affixed to the aircraft. A revised airworthiness certificate having on it an assigned special identification number, that has been affixed to an aircraft, may only be obtained upon application to an FAA Flight Standards district office.



(2) An effective U.S. registration certificate issued to its owner or, for operation within the United States, the second copy of the Aircraft registration Application as provided for in §47.31(c), a Certificate of Aircraft registration as provided in part 48, or a registration certification issued under the laws of a foreign country.



(b) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless the airworthiness certificate required by paragraph (a) of this section or a special flight authorization issued under §91.715 is displayed at the cabin or cockpit entrance so that it is legible to passengers or crew.



Airworthiness Certificate (STD Airworthiness Certificate is issued for an airplane that meets the requirements of 14 CFR 23-- PART 23—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES)

Airworthiness Certificates are obtained via the process in 14 CFR 21 (PART 21—CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND ARTICLES)

14 CFR 21.1 (b) (1) Airworthiness approval means a document, issued by the FAA for an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or article, which certifies that the aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or article conforms to its approved design and is in a condition for safe operation, unless otherwise specified;

14 CFR 21

Subpart H—Airworthiness Certificates



Source: Docket No. 5085, 29 FR 14569, Oct. 24, 1964, unless otherwise noted.



§21.171 Applicability.



This subpart prescribes procedural requirements for the issue of airworthiness certificates.



§21.173 Eligibility.



Any registered owner of a U.S.-registered aircraft (or the agent of the owner) may apply for an airworthiness certificate for that aircraft. An application for an airworthiness certificate must be made in a form and manner acceptable to the FAA, and may be submitted to any FAA office.



[Amdt. 21-26, 34 FR 15244, Sept. 30, 1969]



§21.175 Airworthiness certificates: classification.



(a) Standard airworthiness certificates are airworthiness certificates issued for aircraft type certificated in the normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, or transport category, and for manned free balloons, and for aircraft designated by the FAA as special classes of aircraft.



(b) Special airworthiness certificates are primary, restricted, limited, light-sport, and provisional airworthiness certificates, special flight permits, and experimental certificates.



[Amdt. 21-21, 33 FR 6858, May 7, 1968, as amended by Amdt. 21-60, 52 FR 8043, Mar. 13, 1987; Amdt. 21-70, 57 FR 41368, Sept. 9, 1992; Amdt. 21-85, 69 FR 44861, July 27, 2004]




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§21.177 Amendment or modification.



An airworthiness certificate may be amended or modified only upon application to the FAA.




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§21.179 Transferability.



An airworthiness certificate is transferred with the aircraft.




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§21.181 Duration.



(a) Unless sooner surrendered, suspended, revoked, or a termination date is otherwise established by the FAA, airworthiness certificates are effective as follows:



(1) Standard airworthiness certificates, special airworthiness certificates—primary category, and airworthiness certificates issued for restricted or limited category aircraft are effective as long as the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations are performed in accordance with Parts 43 and 91 of this chapter and the aircraft are registered in the United States.



(2) A special flight permit is effective for the period of time specified in the permit.



(3) A special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category is effective as long as—



(i) The aircraft meets the definition of a light-sport aircraft;



(ii) The aircraft conforms to its original configuration, except for those alterations performed in accordance with an applicable consensus standard and authorized by the aircraft's manufacturer or a person acceptable to the FAA;



(iii) The aircraft has no unsafe condition and is not likely to develop an unsafe condition; and



(iv) The aircraft is registered in the United States.



(4) An experimental certificate for research and development, showing compliance with regulations, crew training, or market surveys is effective for 1 year after the date of issue or renewal unless the FAA prescribes a shorter period. The duration of an experimental certificate issued for operating amateur-built aircraft, exhibition, air-racing, operating primary kit-built aircraft, or operating light-sport aircraft is unlimited, unless the FAA establishes a specific period for good cause.



(b) The owner, operator, or bailee of the aircraft must, upon request, make it available for inspection by the FAA.



(c) Upon suspension, revocation, or termination by order of the FAA of an airworthiness certificate, the owner, operator, or bailee of an aircraft must, upon request, surrender the certificate to the FAA.



[Amdt. 21-21, 33 FR 6858, May 7, 1968, as amended by Amdt. 21-49, 44 FR 46781, Aug. 9, 1979; Amdt. 21-70, 57 FR 41368, Sept. 9, 1992; Amdt. 21-85, 69 FR 44861, July 27, 2004]




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§21.182 Aircraft identification.



(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each applicant for an airworthiness certificate under this subpart must show that his aircraft is identified as prescribed in §45.11.



(b) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to applicants for the following:



(1) A special flight permit.



(2) An experimental certificate for an aircraft not issued for the purpose of operating amateur-built aircraft, operating primary kit-built aircraft, or operating light-sport aircraft.



(3) A change from one airworthiness classification to another, for an aircraft already identified as prescribed in §45.11.



[Amdt. 21-13, 32 FR 188, Jan. 10, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 21-51, 45 FR 60170, Sept. 11, 1980; Amdt. 21-70, 57 FR 41368, Sept. 9, 1992; Amdt. 21-85, 69 FR 44862, July 27, 2004]




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§21.183 Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft.



(a) New aircraft manufactured under a production certificate. An applicant for a standard airworthiness certificate for a new aircraft manufactured under a production certificate is entitled to a standard airworthiness certificate without further showing, except that the FAA may inspect the aircraft to determine conformity to the type design and condition for safe operation.









REGISTRATION (issued to aircraft owner with 3-year duration)(all aircraft require registration)



Registration Certificate (under Title 14 CFR part 47(PART 47—AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION ) (Certificate of Aircraft Registration, AC Form 8050-3):


(14 CFR 47.3):

(b) No person may operate an aircraft that is eligible for registration under 49 U.S.C. 44101-44104, unless the aircraft—



(1) Has been registered by its owner; (translation—Pilots can only fly Registered aircraft)


(14 CFR 47.5): The FAA issues a Certificate of Aircraft Registration, AC Form 8050-3 to the person who appears to be the owner on the basis of the evidence of ownership submitted pursuant to §47.11 with the Aircraft Registration Application, or recorded at the Registry.



§47.40 Registration expiration and renewal.

(3) A Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued under this paragraph expires three years after the last day of the month in which it is issued.


47.15

(b) A U.S. registration number may not exceed five symbols in addition to the prefix letter “N”. These symbols may be all numbers (N10000), one to four numbers and one suffix letter (N 1000A), or one to three numbers and two suffix letters (N 100AB). The letters “I” and “O” may not be used. The first zero in a number must always be preceded by at least one of the numbers 1 through 9.

.


PA.I.B.S2


Determine the aircraft is airworthy in a scenario given by the evaluator.

Req. Inspections completed (A1TAPE), 91.409(a) (plane approved for return to service, or not approved for return to service with list of discrepancies)


Logs (to check for inspections, discrepancy list and fixes/compliance from Annual &/or 100hr inspections and approval for return to service)

Airframe

Engine(Power plant)

Propeller

AD (Airworthiness Directives)


Discrepancies List (from Annul/100-hr inspections

§91.405 Maintenance required.



Each owner or operator of an aircraft—



(a) Shall have that aircraft inspected as prescribed in subpart E of this part and shall between required inspections, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, have discrepancies repaired as prescribed in part 43 of this chapter;


§43.3 Persons authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations.

(b) The holder of a mechanic certificate or an inspection authorization may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service as provided in Part 65 of this chapter.



(c) The holder of a repair station certificate may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service as provided in Part 145 of this chapter.


(f) A person holding at least a private pilot certificate may approve an aircraft for return to service after performing preventive maintenance under the provisions of §43.3(g).



§43.9 Content, form, and disposition of maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration records (except inspections performed in accordance with part 91, part 125, §135.411(a)(1), and §135.419 of this chapter).


The signature constitutes the approval for return to service only for the work performed.









§91.409 Inspections.


Annual (91.409 Inspections)

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may operate an aircraft unless, within the preceding 12 calendar months, it has had—



(1) An annual inspection in accordance with part 43 of this chapter and has been approved for return to service by a person authorized by §43.7 of this chapter


100-hr(91.409 Inspections)

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may operate an aircraft carrying any person (other than a crewmember) for hire, and no person may give flight instruction for hire in an aircraft which that person provides, unless within the preceding 100 hours of time in service the aircraft has received an annual or 100-hour inspection and been approved for return to service in accordance with part 43 of this chapter or has received an inspection for the issuance of an airworthiness certificate in accordance with part 21 of this chapter.




§43.11 Content, form, and disposition of records for inspections conducted under parts 91 and 125 and §§135.411(a)(1) and 135.419 of this chapter.

(a)

(4) Except for progressive inspections, if the aircraft is found to be airworthy and approved for return to service, the following or a similarly worded statement—“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and was determined to be in airworthy condition.”



(5) Except for progressive inspections, if the aircraft is not approved for return to service because of needed maintenance, noncompliance with applicable specifications, airworthiness directives, or other approved data, the following or a similarly worded statement—“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and a list of discrepancies and unairworthy items dated (date) has been provided for the aircraft owner or operator.”


(b) Listing of discrepancies and placards. If the person performing any inspection required by part 91 or 125 or §135.411(a)(1) of this chapter finds that the aircraft is unairworthy or does not meet the applicable type certificate data, airworthiness directives, or other approved data upon which its airworthiness depends, that persons must give the owner or lessee a signed and dated list of those discrepancies. For those items permitted to be inoperative under §91.213(d)(2) of this chapter, that person shall place a placard, that meets the aircraft's airworthiness certification regulations, on each inoperative instrument and the cockpit control of each item of inoperative equipment, marking it “Inoperative,” and shall add the items to the signed and dated list of discrepancies given to the owner or lessee.


Log book entries after ANNUAL and 100-hr inspections:

APPROVED

—“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and was determined to be in airworthy condition.”

DISAPPROVED

—“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and a list of discrepancies and unairworthy items dated (date) has been provided for the aircraft owner or operator.”





A1VTAPE

VOR check (91.171)(if include 30-day VOR ck if flying IFR)


Transponder -24 mth chk (§91.413 ATC transponder tests and inspections., 24 cal mth check)

Altimeter/Pitot-static 24 mth ck (if IFR) (§91.411 Altimeter system and altitude reporting equipment tests and inspections.)

Emergency Locator Transmitter(ELT) – 12 mth ck (ELT) (91.207(d)—12 mth check, also check batteries if <50% power, 91.207(d))


from AFH (FAA-H-8083-3B)

Current status of life limited parts per Type Certificate Data Sheets (TCDS) (14 CFR part 91, section 91.417)


Status, compliance, logbook entries for airworthiness directives (ADs) (14 CFR part 91, section 91.417(a)(2)(v))


Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Form 337, Major Repair or Alteration (14 CFR part 91, section 91.417)


Inoperative equipment (14 CFR part 91, section 91.213)


Airworthiness Directive (AD) compliance for specific airplane 172R Serial # (see AD compliance log)



91.205 instruments/equipment present

§91.205 Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements.



Link to an amendment published at 81 FR 96700, Dec. 30, 2016.



(a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(3) and (e) of this section, no person may operate a powered civil aircraft with a standard category U.S. airworthiness certificate in any operation described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section unless that aircraft contains the instruments and equipment specified in those paragraphs (or FAA-approved equivalents) for that type of operation, and those instruments and items of equipment are in operable condition.



(b) Visual-flight rules (day). For VFR flight during the day, the following instruments and equipment are required:



(1) Airspeed indicator.



(2) Altimeter.



(3) Magnetic direction indicator.



(4) Tachometer for each engine.



(5) Oil pressure gauge for each engine using pressure system.



(6) Temperature gauge for each liquid-cooled engine.



(7) Oil temperature gauge for each air-cooled engine.



(8) Manifold pressure gauge for each altitude engine.



(9) Fuel gauge indicating the quantity of fuel in each tank.



(10) Landing gear position indicator, if the aircraft has a retractable landing gear.



(11) For small civil airplanes certificated after March 11, 1996, in accordance with part 23 of this chapter, an approved aviation red or aviation white anticollision light system. In the event of failure of any light of the anticollision light system, operation of the aircraft may continue to a location where repairs or replacement can be made.



(12) If the aircraft is operated for hire over water and beyond power-off gliding distance from shore, approved flotation gear readily available to each occupant and, unless the aircraft is operating under part 121 of this subchapter, at least one pyrotechnic signaling device. As used in this section, “shore” means that area of the land adjacent to the water which is above the high water mark and excludes land areas which are intermittently under water.



(13) An approved safety belt with an approved metal-to-metal latching device for each occupant 2 years of age or older.



(14) For small civil airplanes manufactured after July 18, 1978, an approved shoulder harness for each front seat. The shoulder harness must be designed to protect the occupant from serious head injury when the occupant experiences the ultimate inertia forces specified in §23.561(b)(2) of this chapter. Each shoulder harness installed at a flight crewmember station must permit the crewmember, when seated and with the safety belt and shoulder harness fastened, to perform all functions necessary for flight operations. For purposes of this paragraph—



(i) The date of manufacture of an airplane is the date the inspection acceptance records reflect that the airplane is complete and meets the FAA-approved type design data; and



(ii) A front seat is a seat located at a flight crewmember station or any seat located alongside such a seat.



(15) An emergency locator transmitter, if required by §91.207.



(16) For normal, utility, and acrobatic category airplanes with a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 9 or less, manufactured after December 12, 1986, a shoulder harness for—



(i) Each front seat that meets the requirements of §23.785 (g) and (h) of this chapter in effect on December 12, 1985;



(ii) Each additional seat that meets the requirements of §23.785(g) of this chapter in effect on December 12, 1985.



(17) For rotorcraft manufactured after September 16, 1992, a shoulder harness for each seat that meets the requirements of §27.2 or §29.2 of this chapter in effect on September 16, 1991.



(c) Visual flight rules (night). For VFR flight at night, the following instruments and equipment are required:



(1) Instruments and equipment specified in paragraph (b) of this section.



(2) Approved position lights.



(3) An approved aviation red or aviation white anticollision light system on all U.S.-registered civil aircraft. Anticollision light systems initially installed after August 11, 1971, on aircraft for which a type certificate was issued or applied for before August 11, 1971, must at least meet the anti-collision light standards of part 23, 25, 27, or 29 of this chapter, as applicable, that were in effect on August 10, 1971, except that the color may be either aviation red or aviation white. In the event of failure of any light of the anti-collision light system, operations with the aircraft may be continued to a stop where repairs or replacement can be made.



(4) If the aircraft is operated for hire, one electric landing light.



(5) An adequate source of electrical energy for all installed electrical and radio equipment.



(6) One spare set of fuses, or three spare fuses of each kind required, that are accessible to the pilot in flight.








AROWCP documents present and displayed or CARPOW


Airworthiness Certificate present


Registration certificate present

Operating Handbook (POH) present (any operating limitations present on placards or POH inserts

Weight and Balance data present


Compass deviation card (14 CFR part 23, section 23.1547 Magnetic direction indicator.)

External data plate (14 CFR part 45, section 45.11)


§45.11 Marking of products. (Identification plates should be on the Aircraft, Aircraft Engine and Propeller)



(a) Aircraft. A manufacturer of aircraft covered under §21.182 of this chapter must mark each aircraft by attaching a fireproof identification plate that—



(1) Includes the information specified in §45.13 using an approved method of fireproof marking;



(2) Must be secured in such a manner that it will not likely be defaced or removed during normal service, or lost or destroyed in an accident; and



(3) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) through (h) of this section, must be secured to the aircraft fuselage exterior so that it is legible to a person on the ground, and must be either adjacent to and aft of the rear-most entrance door or on the fuselage surface near the tail surfaces.



(b) Aircraft engines. A manufacturer of an aircraft engine produced under a type certificate or production certificate must mark each engine by attaching a fireproof identification plate. Such plate—



(1) Must include the information specified in §45.13 using an approved method of fireproof marking;



(2) Must be affixed to the engine at an accessible location; and



(3) Must be secured in such a manner that it will not likely be defaced or removed during normal service, or lost or destroyed in an accident.



(c) Propellers and propeller blades and hubs. Each person who produces a propeller, propeller blade, or propeller hub under a type certificate or production certificate must mark each product or part. Except for a fixed-pitch wooden propeller, the marking must be accomplished using an approved fireproof method. The marking must—



(1) Be placed on a non-critical surface;



(2) Contain the information specified in §45.13;



(3) Not likely be defaced or removed during normal service; and



(4) Not likely be lost or destroyed in an accident.




§45.13 Identification data.



(a) The identification required by §45.11 (a) through (c) must include the following information:



(1) Builder's name.



(2) Model designation.



(3) Builder's serial number.



(4) Type certificate number, if any.



(5) Production certificate number, if any.



(6) For aircraft engines, the established rating.



(7) On or after January 1, 1984, for aircraft engines specified in part 34 of this chapter, the date of manufacture as defined in §34.1 of this chapter, and a designation, approved by the FAA, that indicates compliance with the applicable exhaust emission provisions of part 34 of this chapter and 40 CFR part 87. Approved designations include COMPLY, EXEMPT, and NON-US, as appropriate. After December 31, 2012, approved designations also include EXEMPT NEW, and EXCEPTED SPARE, as appropriate.



(i) The designation COMPLY indicates that the engine is in compliance with all of the applicable exhaust emissions provisions of part 34. For any engine with a rated thrust in excess of 26.7 kilonewtons (6000 pounds) which is not used or intended for use in commercial operations and which is in compliance with the applicable provisions of part 34, but does not comply with the hydrocarbon emissions standard of §34.21(d), the statement “May not be used as a commercial aircraft engine” must be noted in the permanent powerplant record that accompanies the engine at the time of manufacture of the engine.



(ii) The designation EXEMPT indicates that the engine has been granted an exemption pursuant to the applicable provision of §34.7 (a)(1), (a)(4), (b), (c), or (d), and an indication of the type of exemption and the reason for the grant must be noted in the permanent powerplant record that accompanies the engine from the time of manufacture of the engine.



N-number displayed required for flight



§45.23 Display of marks; general.



(a) Each operator of an aircraft must display on that aircraft marks consisting of the Roman capital letter “N” (denoting United States registration) followed by the registration number of the aircraft. Each suffix letter used in the marks displayed must also be a Roman capital letter.








Quick Equip/Maint Check List


AEPpAdD: D=discrepancy lists from inspections)(Maint Logs) (In the logs, looking for magic words: “aircraft has been approved for return to service” by a person authorized under §43.7, —“I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and was determined to be in airworthy condition.”)


A1TAPE(Inspections)(should be in Logs) or A1VTAPE (if include 30-day VOR ck for IFR)

TOMATOFLAMES(91.205 Equipment)

AROW(Documents in plane) or CARPOW





Pre-flight ground checklist review shows no unusual findings (oil leaks, missing rivets, stress lines, flat tire, elevator trim non-functional)


See Airplane Flying Handbook (2016 version) pages 2-1 thru 2-10)









If Airplane Owner needs to know 91.401-91.409



Subpart E—Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations



Source: Docket No. 18334, 54 FR 34311, Aug. 18, 1989, unless otherwise noted.




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§91.401 Applicability.



(a) This subpart prescribes rules governing the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations of U.S.-registered civil aircraft operating within or outside of the United States.



(b) Sections 91.405, 91.409, 91.411, 91.417, and 91.419 of this subpart do not apply to an aircraft maintained in accordance with a continuous airworthiness maintenance program as provided in part 121, 129, or §§91.1411 or 135.411(a)(2) of this chapter.



(c) Sections 91.405 and 91.409 of this part do not apply to an airplane inspected in accordance with part 125 of this chapter.



[Doc. No. 18334, 54 FR 34311, Aug. 18, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 91-267, 66 FR 21066, Apr. 27, 2001; Amdt. 91-280, 68 FR 54560, Sept. 17, 2003]




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§91.403 General.



(a) The owner or operator of an aircraft is primarily responsible for maintaining that aircraft in an airworthy condition, including compliance with part 39 of this chapter.



(b) No person may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations on an aircraft other than as prescribed in this subpart and other applicable regulations, including part 43 of this chapter.



(c) No person may operate an aircraft for which a manufacturer's maintenance manual or instructions for continued airworthiness has been issued that contains an airworthiness limitations section unless the mandatory replacement times, inspection intervals, and related procedures specified in that section or alternative inspection intervals and related procedures set forth in an operations specification approved by the Administrator under part 121 or 135 of this chapter or in accordance with an inspection program approved under §91.409(e) have been complied with.



(d) A person must not alter an aircraft based on a supplemental type certificate unless the owner or operator of the aircraft is the holder of the supplemental type certificate, or has written permission from the holder.



[Doc. No. 18334, 54 FR 34311, Aug. 18, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 91-267, 66 FR 21066, Apr. 27, 2001; Amdt. 91-293, 71 FR 56005, Sept. 26, 2006]




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§91.405 Maintenance required.



Each owner or operator of an aircraft—



(a) Shall have that aircraft inspected as prescribed in subpart E of this part and shall between required inspections, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, have discrepancies repaired as prescribed in part 43 of this chapter;



(b) Shall ensure that maintenance personnel make appropriate entries in the aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been approved for return to service;



(c) Shall have any inoperative instrument or item of equipment, permitted to be inoperative by §91.213(d)(2) of this part, repaired, replaced, removed, or inspected at the next required inspection; and



(d) When listed discrepancies include inoperative instruments or equipment, shall ensure that a placard has been installed as required by §43.11 of this chapter.




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§91.407 Operation after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.



(a) No person may operate any aircraft that has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration unless—



(1) It has been approved for return to service by a person authorized under §43.7 of this chapter; and



(2) The maintenance record entry required by §43.9 or §43.11, as applicable, of this chapter has been made.



(b) No person may carry any person (other than crewmembers) in an aircraft that has been maintained, rebuilt, or altered in a manner that may have appreciably changed its flight characteristics or substantially affected its operation in flight until an appropriately rated pilot with at least a private pilot certificate flies the aircraft, makes an operational check of the maintenance performed or alteration made, and logs the flight in the aircraft records.



(c) The aircraft does not have to be flown as required by paragraph (b) of this section if, prior to flight, ground tests, inspection, or both show conclusively that the maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration has not appreciably changed the flight characteristics or substantially affected the flight operation of the aircraft.



(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2120-0005)




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§91.409 Inspections.



(a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may operate an aircraft unless, within the preceding 12 calendar months, it has had—



(1) An annual inspection in accordance with part 43 of this chapter and has been approved for return to service by a person authorized by §43.7 of this chapter; or



(2) An inspection for the issuance of an airworthiness certificate in accordance with part 21 of this chapter.



No inspection performed under paragraph (b) of this section may be substituted for any inspection required by this paragraph unless it is performed by a person authorized to perform annual inspections and is entered as an “annual” inspection in the required maintenance records.



(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may operate an aircraft carrying any person (other than a crewmember) for hire, and no person may give flight instruction for hire in an aircraft which that person provides, unless within the preceding 100 hours of time in service the aircraft has received an annual or 100-hour inspection and been approved for return to service in accordance with part 43 of this chapter or has received an inspection for the issuance of an airworthiness certificate in accordance with part 21 of this chapter. The 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service.



PA.I.B.S3


Apply the procedures for operating with inoperative equipment in a scenario given by the evaluator.

use 91.213 process to placard INOP any non-flight critical, non-91.205 instruments/equipment (and/or missing equipment (like airplane ID plate)


§91.213 Inoperative instruments and equipment.



(a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may take off an aircraft with inoperative instruments or equipment installed unless the following conditions are met:



(1) An approved Minimum Equipment List exists for that aircraft.



(2) The aircraft has within it a letter of authorization, issued by the FAA Flight Standards district office having jurisdiction over the area in which the operator is located, authorizing operation of the aircraft under the Minimum Equipment List. The letter of authorization may be obtained by written request of the airworthiness certificate holder. The Minimum Equipment List and the letter of authorization constitute a supplemental type certificate for the aircraft.



(3) The approved Minimum Equipment List must—



(i) Be prepared in accordance with the limitations specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and



(ii) Provide for the operation of the aircraft with the instruments and equipment in an inoperable condition.



(4) The aircraft records available to the pilot must include an entry describing the inoperable instruments and equipment.



(5) The aircraft is operated under all applicable conditions and limitations contained in the Minimum Equipment List and the letter authorizing the use of the list.



(b) The following instruments and equipment may not be included in a Minimum Equipment List:



(1) Instruments and equipment that are either specifically or otherwise required by the airworthiness requirements under which the aircraft is type certificated and which are essential for safe operations under all operating conditions.



(2) Instruments and equipment required by an airworthiness directive to be in operable condition unless the airworthiness directive provides otherwise.



(3) Instruments and equipment required for specific operations by this part.



(c) A person authorized to use an approved Minimum Equipment List issued for a specific aircraft under subpart K of this part, part 121, 125, or 135 of this chapter must use that Minimum Equipment List to comply with the requirements in this section.



(d) Except for operations conducted in accordance with paragraph (a) or (c) of this section, a person may takeoff an aircraft in operations conducted under this part with inoperative instruments and equipment without an approved Minimum Equipment List provided—



(1) The flight operation is conducted in a—



(i) Rotorcraft, non-turbine-powered airplane, glider, lighter-than-air aircraft, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft, for which a master minimum equipment list has not been developed; or



(ii) Small rotorcraft, nonturbine-powered small airplane, glider, or lighter-than-air aircraft for which a Master Minimum Equipment List has been developed; and



(2) The inoperative instruments and equipment are not—



(i) Part of the VFR-day type certification instruments and equipment prescribed in the applicable airworthiness regulations under which the aircraft was type certificated;



(ii) Indicated as required on the aircraft's equipment list, or on the Kinds of Operations Equipment List for the kind of flight operation being conducted;



(iii) Required by §91.205 or any other rule of this part for the specific kind of flight operation being conducted; or



(iv) Required to be operational by an airworthiness directive; and



(3) The inoperative instruments and equipment are—



(i) Removed from the aircraft, the cockpit control placarded, and the maintenance recorded in accordance with §43.9 of this chapter; or



(ii) Deactivated and placarded “Inoperative.” If deactivation of the inoperative instrument or equipment involves maintenance, it must be accomplished and recorded in accordance with part 43 of this chapter; and



(4) A determination is made by a pilot, who is certificated and appropriately rated under part 61 of this chapter, or by a person, who is certificated and appropriately rated to perform maintenance on the aircraft, that the inoperative instrument or equipment does not constitute a hazard to the aircraft.



An aircraft with inoperative instruments or equipment as provided in paragraph (d) of this section is considered to be in a properly altered condition acceptable to the Administrator.



(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an aircraft with inoperable instruments or equipment may be operated under a special flight permit issued in accordance with §§21.197 and 21.199 of this chapter.



[Doc. No. 18334, 54 FR 34304, Aug. 18, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 91-280, 68 FR 54560, Sept. 17, 2003; Amdt. 91-282, 69 FR 44880, July 27, 2004]









or



Get a Special Flight Permit (21.197, 21.199)







Task


C. Weather Information


References


14 CFR part 91; FAA-H-8083-25; AC 00-6, AC 00-45; AIM


Objective


To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with weather information for a flight under VFR.


Knowledge


The applicant demonstrates understanding of:


PA.I.C.K1


Acceptable sources of weather data for flight planning purposes.

Federal Government (FAA, National Weather Service)


(AIM 20170427, Meteorology 7−1−5) (must be from FAA and/or NWS [AIM 7-1-4]-- Pilots and operators should be aware that weather services provided by entities other than FAA, NWS or their contractors (such as the DUATS and Lockheed Martin Flight Services DUATS II, http://www.1800wxbrief.com ) may not meet FAA/NWS quality control standards.) (AIM 7-1-5,

The FAA has determined that operators and pilots may utilize the following approved sources of aviation weather information:




1. Federal Government. The FAA and NWS collect raw weather data, analyze the observations, and produce forecasts. The FAA and NWS disseminate meteorological observations, analyses, and forecasts through a variety of systems. In addition, the Federal Government is the only approval authority for sources of weather observations; for example, contract towers and airport operators may be approved by the Federal Government to provide weather observations.



PA.I.C.K2


Weather products required for preflight planning, current and forecast weather for departure, en route, and arrival phases of flight.



(Summary:

METARs, (current weather) from ASOS, AWOS stations


ATIS

TAFs, (forecast—surface, 4 mile radius from TAF location)

PIREPs,

Area Forecast (FA)

Prognostic Charts

Winds/Temperatures Aloft forecast (for en route ops),

SIGMETs,

AIRMETs,

Convective SIGMETs (these three --METs are known as Inflight Weather Advisories)

NOTAMs may list outages of weather facilities along the path


HIWAS

LAWRS

TFRs along route (fire TFRs could go as high as 11-18,000 ft)


For optimal cross-country, looking for all TAFs to display 00000KT P6SM, SKC with temps at 15C




PHAK 13-5

Standard Briefing


A standard briefing provides the most complete information and a more complete weather picture. This type of briefing should be obtained prior to the departure of any flight and should be used during flight planning.


Standard Briefings can be obtained from FSS and 1800wxbrief.com website (Official Fed Gov contracted flight planning site)




(variety of different forecast products are produced and designed to be used in the preflight planning stage. The printed forecasts that pilots need to be familiar with are the terminal aerodrome forecast (TAF), aviation area forecast (FA), inflight weather advisories (SIGMET, AIRMET), and the winds and temperatures aloft forecast (FB).PHAK, 13-9 )


A TAF is a report established for the five statute mile radius around an airport.

Area Forecasts (FA)


The Area Forecast (FA) gives a picture of clouds, general weather conditions, and visual meteorological conditions (VMC) expected over a large area encompassing several states. There are six areas for which area forecasts are published in the contiguous 48 states. Area forecasts are issued three times a day and are valid for 18 hours. This type of forecast gives information vital to en route operations, as well as forecast information for smaller airports that do not have terminal forecasts.



Winds and Temperature Aloft Forecast (FB)


Winds and temperatures aloft forecasts (FB) provide wind and temperature forecasts for specific locations throughout the United States, including network locations in Hawaii and Alaska. The forecasts are made twice a day based on the radiosonde upper air observations taken at 0000Z and 1200Z.


Altitudes through 12,000 feet are classified as true altitudes, while altitudes 18,000 feet and above are classified as altitudes and are termed flight levels. Wind direction is always in reference to true north, and wind speed is given in knots. The temperature is given in degrees Celsius. No winds are forecast when a given level is within 1,500 feet of the station elevation. Similarly, temperatures are not forecast for any station within 2,500 feet of the station elevation. PHAK 13-13



Weather Charts


Weather charts are graphic charts that depict current or forecast weather. They provide an overall picture of the United States and should be used in the beginning stages of flight planning. Typically, weather charts show the movement of major weather systems and fronts. Surface analysis (Highs/Lows), weather depiction (IFR areas), and significant weather prognostic charts (forecast of aviation weather hazards) are sources of current weather information. Significant weather prognostic charts provide an overall forecast weather picture. PHAK 13-13





7−1−4. Preflight Briefing


a. Flight Service Stations (FSSs) are the primary


source for obtaining preflight briefings and inflight


weather information. (AIM , 7-1-5)














PA.I.C.K3


Meteorology applicable to the departure, en route, alternate, and destination under VFR in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to include expected climate and hazardous


conditions such as:


PA.I.C.K3a


a. Atmospheric composition and stability

Air pressure (1inHg) and temp (2C) decrease at a steady, reliable rate with increase in altitude

High Press spins clockwise & winds going outward, Low Press spins counterclockwise with winds coming in


PA.I.C.K3b


b. Wind (e.g., crosswind, tailwind, wind shear, etc.)

Wind speed, wind direction, wind gusts,


PA.I.C.K3c


c. Temperature

Extremes in temperature (high temp = high density alt) low temp = icing, altimeter issues


PA.I.C.K3d


d. Moisture/precipitation

note any that would obscure vsby (fog, heavy rain)


PA.I.C.K3e


e. Weather system formation, including air masses (cold air mass, warm air mass) and fronts

Cold, Warm and Occluded fronts bad for avn; vsby low, rain and gusty winds

Low pressure systems associated with bad wthr sometimes, always check Area and TAF forecasts along route


The location where two air masses meet is called a front. (and some type of bad for avn wthr forms), for example with warm front(goes over top of cold front) you get statiform clouds, fog, drizzle and low vsby


PA.I.C.K3f


f. Clouds

Cumulus and Cumulonimbus CB clouds bad for avn, source of Thunderstorms and atmospheric instability, (CB clds bad for avn)



Cirrus clouds = good weather (good for avn)


PA.I.C.K3g


g. Turbulence

Conv SIGMETs, SIGMETs and AIRMET Tango, check PIREPs along route for turbulence(turb bad for avn, causes stress on airframe)


PA.I.C.K3h


h. Thunderstorms and microburst

Severe winds and rain + wind shear = bad for avn

microburst winds go straight down to ground and can push plane to ground


PA.I.C.K3i


i. Icing and freezing level information

See Low Level Significant Weather (SigWx) Charts for forecastFreezing level, see SIGMEs and AIRMETs for current and forecast Icing and Freezing levels


PA.I.C.K3j


j. Fog

Temp = Dewpoint, Fog forms (when temp near dewpoint, need to not fly and be ready for fog)

Warm fronts come with fog


PA.I.C.K3k


k. Frost

Temp=Dewpoint and temp below freezing (bad for avn, reduces lift)


PA.I.C.K4


Flight deck displays of digital weather and aeronautical information.


NEXRAD, display weather 15-30 mins in the past

Terrain displays


Risk Management


The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:


PA.I.C.R1


Factors involved in making the go/no go and continue/divert decisions, to include:


PA.I.C.R1a


a. Circumstances that would make diversion prudent

low vsby, turbulence, icing, check AWOS, HIWAS


PA.I.C.R1b


b. Personal weather minimums

7sm by 7k cig


PA.I.C.R2


Limitations of:


PA.I.C.R2a


a. Onboard weather equipment (delayed by 15-30 mins, vwng wthr frm 15-30 mins ago)


PA.I.C.R2b


b. Aviation weather reports and forecasts


limited by weather sensors, may show past weather and not able to display fast forming weather such as Thunderstorms


PA.I.C.R2c


c. Inflight weather resources

FSS, AWOS/ASOS, ATIS, HIWAS, inflight weather with ADS-B services


Radar weather may be 15-30 mins from the past (all of the avaialbe services are not real-time except for maybe AWOS/ASOS)

NEXRAD data is at least 8 minutes old by the time you see it on a display


Skills


The applicant demonstrates the ability to:


PA.I.C.S1


Use available aviation weather resources to obtain an adequate weather briefing.

Get Std Briefing from 1800wxbrief/ FSS, check TAFs along route, Area Forecasts, Winds/Temps aloft at all altitudes up to cruise


PA.I.C.S2


Discuss the implications of at least three of the conditions listed in K3a through K3k above, using actual weather or weather conditions in a scenario provided by the evaluator.

Know where TS may form along route (can’t fly above or around (not easy)

Know Freezing level (from AIRMETs, SIGMETs, ProgCharts, Area Forecast)

Anticipate Fog formation at any ldg pt in route if Temp/Dewpoint close together

Are any Fronts going to be in your route of flight?


PA.I.C.S3


Correlate weather information to make a go/no-go decision.

I am going to fly from SAC-CIC (Chico CA) (should I go?)

TAFs all VFR to CIC showing P6SM+SKC, 8kt SW wind, haze/smoke north of CIC




I am going from SAC-CLM(Port Angeles, WA) (should I go?)

TAFs VFR to CLM, most show P6SM+SKC, flying in 10kt North wind at 10,500, TFRs (fire) in Oregon (will have to divert around or climb), no SIGMETs/AIRMETs along route


Area Forecasts(12 hr forecast plus a 6 hr outlook(VFR,IFR)/GphclFrcstsAvn(GFA-new)

Winds/Temperatures Aloft forecast (for en route ops),

Prog Charts

SIGMETs, AIRMETs, PIREPs

TAFs (TAF order of info = Wind - Visibility - Weather - Sky Condition - Optional Data (Wind Shear)

METARs/Surface Analysis/Weather Depiction(Areas of IFR), Radar(Areas of Rain)

Inflight-Weather: AWOS/ASOS/ATIS/HIWAS(SIGMET-AIRMET-PIREP)/LAWRs/Flight Service/ATC/ADS-B weather(NEXRAD)/ACAS(Adverse Condition Alert Service: provided by FSS if filed flight Plan—send to phone SIGMETs, AIRMETs, PIREPs pertinent to your route)


Temp/Dewpoint (close=fog 20/20)

CIG(>1000 ft?)


VSBY (>3sm?)


TAF (Format/Order)

Wind

VSBY

Weather(RA, SN, BR, HZ, TS, FG, FU, etc)

Sky Condition (SKC, OVC050)


Ceiling (CIG)

Clouds(CB,ACC, etc)

Wind/Turb/LLWS(low level wind shear) (AIRMET-Tango)

Icing (AIRMET Zulu)


IFR Cond/Mtn Obsn (AIRMET-Sierra)

SIGMETs/Conv-SIGMETs (TS,


TFRs

NOTAMs


Three factors Rate(How does the current/predicted weather affect the three factors below):

(1)Visibility/Ceilings(Reduced)(Clouds, Rain, Fog,Haze, Temp/Dewpoint close)? (I want Vsby-7sm/CIG 7000ft or greater)

(2)Turbulence/Winds(Present)(Surface Wind, Winds Aloft, Wind gusts, AIRMET-Tango)?

(3)Performance(Reduced)(Temp)(high-Density Alt, low-icing)?











ACAS detail from 1-800-wx-brief:


The ACAS service will send alert messages to the Position Reporting and Communications Devices, Text Message Phone Numbers, and Email Addresses you select below, when adverse conditions arise along your planned route of flight.




Per FAA Order 7110.10, adverse conditions include:


Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR) AIRMETs (WA)


Airport/Runway Closures (AA) Urgent Pilot Reports (UUA) / Special AIREPs (ARS)


SIGMETs (WS) Severe Weather Watches (AWW)


Convective SIGMETs (WST) Severe Weather (WW)


Center Weather Advisories (CWA)




The ACAS service will also send alert messages when UOAs are reported within 2,000 ft of the filed altitude, and for all UOAs reported within 10 nm of the departure or destination.




This service includes options for preflight and inflight alerting.




Notes: For IFR flight plans, preflight alerts will be based on the filed route (which may be different from the ATC-assigned route) and will cease at the Estimated Time of Departure. For Alaska VFR flight plans with extended ETA, inflight alerts will not be sent.









Task


D. Cross-Country Flight Planning


References


14 CFR part 91; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-25; Navigation Charts; Chart Supplements; AIM; NOTAMs


Objective


To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with cross-country flights and VFR flight planning.


Knowledge


The applicant demonstrates understanding of:


PA.I.D.K1


Route planning, to include consideration of different classes and special use airspace and selection of appropriate navigation/communication systems and facilities.


For Direction of Flight, consider Prohibited,Restricted,Warning areas, MOAs, Alert areas, MTRs, TFRs, NOTAMs, Class B, Mode C veil near Class B, Class C,

Class D, Class E at and above 10,000 MSL(need transponder), have FSS, ATC and Airport towers, CTAFs and VOR freq along route; navigation via

pilotage (easily visible landmarks), dead reckoning, GPS and VOR backup systems


PA.I.D.K2


Altitude selection accounting for terrain and obstacles, glide distance of aircraft, VFR cruising altitudes, and the effect of wind.


Use IFR MEA/MOCA to set minimum altitude along route considering VFR cruising altitudes required by 91.159

(1) On a magnetic course of zero degrees through 179 degrees, any odd thousand foot MSL altitude +500 feet (such as 3,500, 5,500, or 7,500); or


(2) On a magnetic course of 180 degrees through 359 degrees, any even thousand foot MSL altitude +500 feet (such as 4,500, 6,500, or 8,500).


Winds/Temps aloft forecast for optimum wind/min turbulence level (not sure what FAA means by “effect of wind”, if you are flying north and the wind

is from the west its probably going to be mostly from the west at GA altitudes)


PA.I.D.K3


Calculating:


PA.I.D.K3a


a. Time, climb and descent rates, course, distance, heading, true airspeed, and groundspeed


Time = Dist/Rate=Time (100 miles/120knots=.83 hr (49.8 minutes)

Climb/Descent Rates (refer to POH and adjust for Temps above Standard)

Course (Use Plotter to get True course)

Distance (Use Plotter to get Distance)

Heading (apply wind component from Winds Aloft to True Course to get True Heading, apply Deviation to get Magnetic Heading)

True Airspeed (refer to POH for Cruise True Airspeed at different Altitudes, convert POH Indicated Airspeed in Climb with E6B to get True Climb Airspeed)

GroundSpeed (subtract headwind, add tailwind to True Airspeed to get Ground Speed)


PA.I.D.K3b


b. Estimated time of arrival to include conversion to universal coordinated time (UTC)


Estimate time of Arrival using D=rt or D/r=t with r(rate) = ground speed

We are Pacific Daylight time now so we’ll add 7 hours to local time to get UTC, if PST add 8 hrs (MTN+6, CTL+5,ESTN+4)


PA.I.D.K3c


c. Fuel requirements, to include reserve


Use POH to get:


Taxi/Runup Gal = 1.1

Climb Gal = (see POH), 3 gals

Cruise GPH (see POH), 6-10 GPH depending on Alt, Power Setting and Current Temp


PA.I.D.K4


Elements of a VFR flight plan.


Flight Rule (VFR,IFR)


Aircraft ID (N441QF)


Aircraft Type (C172)


Aircraft Equipment (U)


No. of Aircraft


Heavy


Airspeed


Altitude (100s ft)


Departure


Departure Date & Time


Route of Flight (Blank for direct)


Destination


Time Enroute


Fuel on Board


Remarks (Optional)


No. on Board


Alternate Apt 1 (Optional)


Alternate Apt 2 (Optional)



Pilot Contact Information


Aircraft Color




Sec. 91.153 VFR flight plan: Information required.



(a) Information required. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each


person filing a VFR flight plan shall include in it the following


information:


(1) The aircraft identification number and, if necessary, its radio


call sign.


(2) The type of the aircraft or, in the case of a formation flight,


the type of each aircraft and the number of aircraft in the formation.


(3) The full name and address of the pilot in command or, in the


case of a formation flight, the formation commander.


(4) The point and proposed time of departure.


(5) The proposed route, cruising altitude (or flight level), and


true airspeed at that altitude.


(6) The point of first intended landing and the estimated elapsed


time until over that point.


(7) The amount of fuel on board (in hours).


(8) The number of persons in the aircraft, except where that


information is otherwise readily available to the FAA.


(9) Any other information the pilot in command or ATC believes is


necessary for ATC purposes.



(b) Cancellation. When a flight plan has been activated, the pilot


in command, upon canceling or completing the flight under the flight


plan, shall notify an FAA Flight Service Station or ATC facility.






PA.I.D.K5


Procedures for activating and closing a VFR flight plan.


Contact Flight Service Station via telephone or over airplane radio frequency (122.05 Rancho Murieta Radio for KSAC, see Chart Spplmt for your area) to Activate and Close flight plan. Close Flight Plan less than 30 minutes after landing.


You can also Activate and Close Flight Plans with the 1-800-WX-Brief.com email/text msg links as well as Activating the Flight Plan directly by pressing the Activate button right at the bottom of the Flight Service (1800wxbrief.com ) Flight Plan online form

https://www.1800wxbrief.com/Website/home#!/


The EasyActivate™ and EasyClose™ service will send messages to the Text Message Phone Numbers and Email Addresses you select below, with links for fast flight plan activation and closure.



Messages are sent:


(a) 30 minutes before proposed departure time with a link to Activate your flight plan.


(b) 30 minutes before Estimated Time of Arrival with a link to Close your flight plan.




Risk Management


The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:


PA.I.D.R1


Pilot.

IMSAFE

Illness


Medication


Sleep

Alcohol

Fatigue

Eating


PAVE checklist


PA.I.D.R2


Aircraft.


Airworthy? A1TAPE inspections all up to date?


PA.I.D.R3


Environment (e.g., weather, airports, airspace, terrain, obstacles).


PA.I.D.R4


External pressures.


(schedules, other passengers wants/desires/schedules, timelines, deadlines, opportunities lost if don’t go)


PA.I.D.R5


Limitations of air traffic control (ATC) services.


ATC services provided on a workload permitting basis


Radar coverage limitations based on scientific limitations of Radar:

Radar could be blocked by mountains, bent by temperature inversions, reflect/attenuated off other objects like heavy clouds in the air that cause the radar beam to not reach a small plane to be reflected back to the controller


The controller's first priority is given to establishing vertical, lateral, or longitudinal separation between aircraft flying IFR under the control of ATC.

aim lnk




PA.I.D.R6


Improper fuel planning.


See POH for fuel usage (Gal Per Hour-GPH) at different cruise and climb scenarios, see POH for GPH planning


Skills


The applicant demonstrates the ability to:


PA.I.D.S1


Prepare, present and explain a cross-country flight plan assigned by the evaluator including a risk analysis based on real-time weather, to the first fuel stop.

Flight Plan form - _FAA_7233 7233 pdf



Flight Plan components:

Flight Rule (VFR,IFR)


Aircraft ID (N441QF)


Aircraft Type (C172)


Aircraft Equipment (U)


No. of Aircraft


Heavy


Airspeed


Altitude (100s ft)


Departure


Departure Date & Time


Route of Flight (Blank for direct)


Destination


Time Enroute


Fuel on Board


Remarks (Optional)


No. on Board


Alternate Apt 1 (Optional)


Alternate Apt 2 (Optional)


Pilot Contact Information


Aircraft Color


Checked all weather (TAFs, Area Forecast, SIGMETs/AIRMETs,TFRs),NOTAMs,

Have ACAS set with my Flight Plan on 1800wxbrief

Have checkpoints (visual) set

Determined Distance, Calculated:

Flight Time (flight time to each checkpoint, expected),

Fuel Requirements Fuel burn(fuel requirements),

Direction (Mag. Heading) (+wind correction angles for different areas/altitudes of flight)

Ground Speed (true airspeed) considering wind



PA.I.D.S2

Apply pertinent information from appropriate and current aeronautical charts, chart supplements; NOTAMs relative to airport, runway and taxiway closures; and other flight


publications.

Review current Sectionals, Chart Supplements for all required Frequency and Runway length information. Review NOTAMs, TFRs, AIRMETs for information that may affect flight


For 91.103 (get Weather, Fuel req., Alternates, Runway distances and landing/takeoff distances)





PA.I.D.S3


Create a navigation log and simulate filing a VFR flight plan.


For each NavLog checkpoint, Set


Altitude (for each segment + cruise altitude)

Direction (Magnetic Heading/Compass hdg (True course, Wind CrtnAngl, True Hdg, Vartn,Devtn)

Speed (True Airspeed/Indicated Airspeed/Ground Speed)

Fuel Burn (Gallons)

Estimated Time to checkpoint


Full Navlog:

Fuel Requirements TOTAL


Time of Flight TOTAL


Distance of Flight TOTAL


Direction of flight(initial), Compass hdg (N, W, E, S), multiple Mag Hdgs chg crs at ckpts.

Top of Climb


Top of Descent




PA.I.D.S4

Recalculate fuel reserves based on a scenario provided by the evaluator.


See POH for GPH at assigned altitude/temperature/power setting



GPH x time at new setting = fuel required/estimated fuel burn


Sec. 91.151



Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.



(a) No person may begin a flight in an airplane under VFR conditions unless (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is enough fuel to fly to the first point of intended landing and, assuming normal cruising speed--


(1) During the day, to fly after that for at least 30 minutes; or


(2) At night, to fly after that for at least 45 minutes.


(b) No person may begin a flight in a rotorcraft under VFR conditions unless (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is enough fuel to fly to the first point of intended landing and, assuming normal cruising speed, to fly after that for at least 20 minutes.




Task


E. National Airspace System


References


14 CFR parts 71, 91, 93; FAA-H-8083-2; Navigation Charts; AIM



Objective


To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge,


risk management, and skills associated with the National


Airspace System (NAS) operating under VFR as a private pilot.


Knowledge


The applicant demonstrates understanding of:


PA.I.E.K1


Types of airspace/airspace classes and associated requirements and limitations.







Use this Reference Card to Determine if you meet:




(1) Weather (Vsby/Dist. Fm Clds)




(2) Equipment (2-way Radio, Transponder)




(3) Pilot Certificate (Private, Instrument,




(4) Entry Requirement (ATC clearance (A, B, SpclVFR (Sfc E)), Radio Contact (C,D)







AirSpace Reference:

























Mode C veil airspace applies from surface to 10,000 ft MSL.


Altitude reporting is required from the surface of Class D, E, G


airports if these airports are within Mode C veil (example:


Class G Auburn Apt (S50) within Seattle Mode C veil, under


Seattle (KSEA) Class B).







Special VFR 91.157-




Sec. 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums.



(a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part,


special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and


requirements of this section, instead of those contained in Sec. 91.155,


below 10,000 feet MSL within the airspace contained by the upward


extension of the lateral boundaries of the controlled airspace


designated to the surface for an airport.










(1) ATC clearance


(2) Visibility=1 statute mile


(3) Distance from Clouds= Clear of Clouds







AirSpace Classes IMG (color)













Airspace classes IMG






















Sec. 91.117 Aircraft speed. (200k below 2500 ago or 250k below 10k msl)




Sec. 91.119 Minimum safe altitudes: General. (a) create no hazard, (b)


1000ft abv/2000 ft horiz (c) 500 ft fm any civilized item)




Sec. 91.159 VFR cruising altitude or flight level.,


if >3000 ft agl, (0-179 mag odd 1000s +500 eg 3500 ,


180-350 even 1000s + 500 eg 4500)


























PA.I.E.K2


Charting symbology. (see legend on sectional/tac/ifr chart)


Sectional Chart (Regular Airspace Classes B, C, D, E, G), sfc to 17,999 MSL:



Sectional Chart Legend Image (Airspace)









PA.I.E.K3


Special use airspace (SUA), special flight rules areas (SFRA),


temporary flight restrictions (TFR), and other airspace areas.



Special Use Airspace (SUA)


SUA definition from AIM 3-4-1: Airspace wherein


activities must be confined


because of their nature, or wherein limitations are


imposed on aircraft operations that are not a part


of those activities, or both.



TO DO: (1) check for Active SUAs using the FAA TFR


and SUA maps. (2)If any SUA will be active during the


time/intended route of your flight, determine if you can


pass through the SUA with or without permission or if


you can going or above the SUA. (3) if you cannot


pass through an active SUA and going around is


not feasible, consider flying another day.



FAA Active SUA Map Link (check this first for all


ACTIVE SUA including TFRs, MOAs and MTRs (active


MTRs look like black lines on the map), If a


TFR is listed as active, obtain the TFR FDC


NOTAM for operating times, altitudes and


controlling agency)



FAA SUA Map (Active SUAs)












Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR),



What are TFRs? (from the FAA)


A Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) is a type of Notices to Airmen (NOTAM). A TFR defines


an area restricted to air travel due to a hazardous condition, a special event, or a general


warning for the entire FAA airspace. The text of the actual TFR contains the fine points


of the restriction.



TFRs are issued as FDC NOTAMs (example)


(review each TFR for active times, altitudes, controlling agency)


TFR Lookup (FAA)



FAA Active TFR Map Link


FAA Active TFR List link


FAA PilotWeb FDC TFR Text NOTAM by Flight Path



TFRs are not displayed on officially published FAA Sectional charts


(but can be found on web-based Sectional charts presented by


companies such as SkyVector) .



FAA TFR Image Map (CONUS)










TFR Overview



A temporary flight restriction (TFR) is a regulatory action that temporarily


restricts certain aircraft from operating within a defined area in order to


protect persons or property in the air or on the ground. TFRs are issued


in a NOTAM. You must obtain the NOTAM that establishes a TFR and


understand what is and isn't allowed. To obtain the most current information


it is necessary to contact a FSS.



There are several types of TFRs defined in the regulations. Since TFRs are, by


definition, “temporary” in nature, it is


extremely important to check the FDC NOTAMs before every flight you make.



TFRs are not depicted on any navigational charts. Size, shape, altitudes,


and other details vary. resources are available to help you visualize and


understand restrictions.


TFR Format


FDC NOTAMs that establish TFRs follow a very specific format.


All begin with the phrase, “FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS” and include


the following information:


1.Location of the TFR area


2.Effective period


3.Defined area


4.Altitudes affected


5.FAA coordination facility and telephone number


6.Reason for the TFR


7.Agency directing relief activities (if applicable) and telephone number


8.Any other information considered appropriate.



The FAA's TFR website (http://tfr.faa.gov/tfr2/list.html) provides multiple


options for finding a specific TFR. In addition to reviewing the text, this


website offers the option of a graphical depiction of the affected area.



TFR example for an Airshow in SEPT 2017:



FAA TFR (FDC NOTAM) example













Special Use Airspace Sectional Chart Symbols / Sectional Chart Legend


SUA Displayed on Sectional Charts (Sectional Chart displays controlling


agency contact information, active times and altitudes at the top of the chart)









SUA (Warning, Military Operations Areas (MOAs), Alert areas, Controlled Firing Areas)


Description and recommended pilot action:













Prohibited/Restricted Areas


(displayed on Sectional Charts with blue border


(along with Warning areas) (see top of Sectional


for times, altitudes, controlling agency)


Prohibited (all flights over Prohibited areas are not


allowed unless specifically authorized, considered


a no-fly zone) A prohibited area begins at the surface


and has defined dimensions in which the flight of


unauthorized aircraft is prohibited. Such areas are established


when necessary to prohibit flight in the interest of national


security and welfare.






Prohibited/National Security Area(small area) +


Seattle (KSEA) Mode C veil (red line) displayed:










Restricted (all flights over Restricted areas require approval from


controlling agency prior to entering area)


A restricted area is airspace within which the operation of aircraft is


subject to restriction. Restricted areas are established to separate


activities considered to be hazardous to other aircraft, such as artillery


firing or aerial gunnery.



NOTE: Times of use shown on the Sectional Chart for Restricted Areas


are not exclusive. Some restricted areas include the notation “other


times by NOTAM.” Always check NOTAMs and/or contact the controlling


agency for active times. Restricted areas are listed in 14 CFR 73.13 and


Aeronautical Information Manual section 3-4-3.










National Security Areas



National Security Areas consist of airspace of defined vertical and


lateral dimensions established at locations where there is a


requirement for increased security and safety of ground facilities.


Pilots are requested to voluntarily avoid flying through the depicted


NSA. When it is necessary to provide a greater level of security and


safety, flight in NSAs may be temporarily prohibited by regulation


under the provisions of 14 CFR Section 99.7. Regulatory prohibitions


will be issued by System Operations, System Operations Airspace and


AIM Office, Airspace and Rules, and disseminated via NOTAM.


Inquiries about NSAs Inquiries should be directed to Airspace and Rules.









Special Use Airspace Sectional Chart Symbols


/ Sectional Chart Legend


SUAs also include TRSAs, Mode C, and FAR 93 (Special Airport


Traffic Areas/Special Air Traffic Rules/Special Flight Rules/Special


Flight Rules Areas (SFRA)(eg Wash DC, SFRA NY Class B)







FAR 93 Special Flight Rules Areas (SFRA) / CFR reference


title is: PART 93—SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES



§93.1 Applicability.


This part prescribes special air traffic rules for operating


aircraft in certain areas described in this part, unless


otherwise authorized by air traffic control.



FAR 93 SFRAs and areas with SFRs are regulated areas


established for security and/or because of high flight density


and have specific instructions for operation. Details about SFRAs


(Wash DC and NY) and areas with SFRs are found in 14 CFR


part 93 FAR 93 Link


FAR 93 airports should have a box around the Airport Name and


white diagonal lines surrounding the area(Anchorage Intl (PANC))









temporary flight restrictions (TFR),


FAA TFR Map (Active TFRs)








other airspace areas (MOAs, Alert, Warning, Controlled Firing,


Restricted, MTRs, Mode C)(see sectional for operating details)







MTRs (Military Training Routes-contact TRACON or FSS for


activity and altitudes) and check FAA SUA website here


(FAA Active SUA Map Link ), clicking Map Layers and check boxing


MTR options as MTRs are not displayed by default map














MTRs, ADIZ and MOAs on Sectional










Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) (basic requirements)


(1) 2-way radio,


(2) Altitude reporting transponder


(3) Defense VFR (DVFR) flight plan (you should not activate


your flight plan in the air or you will get intercepted)



Question:


If I fly from Little River way off the coast and cross the ADIZ going


west, do I need a DVFR to cross back over the ADIZ when flying back to Little River?



( See FAA Entering, Exiting and Flying in United States Airspace for ADIZ information )



All aircraft entering domestic U.S. airspace from points outside must


provide for identification prior to entry. To facilitate early aircraft


identification of all aircraft in the vicinity of U.S. and international


airspace boundaries, Air Defense Identification Zones (ADIZ)


have been established.



For the majority of operations associated with an ADIZ, an operating


two way radio is required. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC,


each aircraft conducting operations, into, within, or across the


Contiguous U.S. ADIZ must be equipped with an operable radar


beacon transponder having altitude capability.



Generally a DVFR flight plan must be filed to enter an ADIZ.


There are exceptions for aircraft operations that remain within


10 nautical miles of the point of departure point within the


48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia, or within


the State of Alaska: Over any island, or within 3 nautical miles


of the coastline of any island: or Associated with any ADIZ


other than the Contiguous U.S. ADIZ when the aircraft true


airspeed is less than 180 knots.



An air filed VFR makes an aircraft subject to interception for


positive identification when entering an ADIZ. Pilots are,


therefore, urged to file the required DVFR flight plan either in


person or by telephone prior to departure.













ADIZ (Air Defense Identification Zone)






Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) (basic requirements)


(1) 2-way radio,


(2) Altitude reporting transponder


(3) Defense VFR (DVFR) flight plan (you should not activate your


flight plan in the air or you will get intercepted)



Question:


If I fly from Little River way off the coast and cross the


ADIZ going west, do I need a DVFR to cross back over the


ADIZ when flying back to Little River?



( See FAA Entering, Exiting and Flying in United States Airspace for ADIZ information )



All aircraft entering domestic U.S. airspace from points outside


must provide for identification prior to entry. To facilitate early aircraft


identification of all aircraft in the vicinity of U.S. and international


airspace boundaries, Air Defense Identification Zones (ADIZ) have been established.



For the majority of operations associated with an ADIZ, an operating


two way radio is required. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each


aircraft conducting operations, into, within, or across the Contiguous


U.S. ADIZ must be equipped with an operable radar beacon


transponder having altitude capability.



Generally a DVFR flight plan must be filed to enter an ADIZ. There


are exceptions for aircraft operations that remain within 10 nautical


miles of the point of departure point within the 48 contiguous states


and the District of Columbia, or within the State of Alaska: Over any


island, or within 3 nautical miles of the coastline of any island: or


Associated with any ADIZ other than the Contiguous U.S. ADIZ


when the aircraft true airspeed is less than 180 knots.



An air filed VFR makes an aircraft subject to interception for positive


identification when entering an ADIZ. Pilots are, therefore, urged to


file the required DVFR flight plan either in person or by telephone


prior to departure.








3−5−6. Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)


TRSA (voluntary participation)








TRSAs do not fit into any of the U.S. airspace classes;


therefore, they will continue to be non−Part 71


airspace areas where participating pilots can receive


additional radar services which have been redefined


as TRSA Service.


b. TRSAs. The primary airport(s) within the


TRSA become(s) Class D airspace. The remaining


portion of the TRSA overlies other controlled


airspace which is normally Class E airspace


beginning at 700 or 1,200 feet and established to


transition to/from the en route/terminal environment.


c. Participation. Pilots operating under VFR are


encouraged to contact the radar approach control and


avail themselves of the TRSA Services. However,


participation is voluntary on the part of the pilot. See


Chapter 4, Air Traffic Control, for details and


procedures.


d. Charts. TRSAs are depicted on VFR sectional


and terminal area charts with a solid black line and


altitudes for each segment. The Class D portion is


charted with a blue segmented line.







--Other Periodic FAA Airspace Rulings that may affect your


flight/flight plan(these are usually issued by NOTAM)--



SFARs & Emergency Rules



SFARs



A Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) pertaining to


airspace is typically a temporary rule to address a temporary


situation. It is generally not used to replace or enforce regulations


that are to remain in effect for many years. Consequently, an


SFAR has an expiration date, usually no more than 3 years


from its effective date. SFARs are listed at the beginning of


the most relevant Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), and


may be cross-referenced to other regulations. SFARS can


prohibit, restrict, or have additional requirements to operate


in the airspace the SFAR applies to.



SFARs cover a broad range of topics, for example:


## SFAR 50-2, Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of


the Grand Canyon National Park , AZ;


## SFAR 73, Robinson R-22/R-44 Special Training


and Experience Requirements



Emergency Air Traffic Rules



When authorities determine there is (or will be) an


emergency condition affecting the FAA's ability to


operate the air traffic control system with the


necessary level of safety and efficiency, the


Administrator may issue an air traffic rule with


immediate effect – that is, a rule that does not go


through the normal rule making processes.



The NOTAM system is used to disseminate information


on the precise impact, terms, and conditions of the


emergency air traffic rule, so it is imperative to check


FDC NOTAMs before every flight.





Thorough preflight planning – including a review of


FDC NOTAMs and the airspace to be flown in is


critical, not only to the safety of your flight, but also


to avoiding violation of TFRs and other flight


restrictions. FDC NOTAMs are regulatory in


nature and contain such items as amendments to


published Instrument Approach Procedures, changes


to aeronautical charts, and TFRs. You must check


with Flight Service or DUATs to ensure that you have


the most up-to-date information on flight restrictions


and special use airspace along your intended route of flight.






FAASafety.gov Airspace Course Link(TFRs, etc.)







Risk Management


The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:


PA.I.E.R1


Various classes of airspace.



Class A-E, G (Do I meet the Weather, Equipment, Pilot cert req.)?


Special Use Airspace (SUA) (Have I checked for SUA along


my route of flight? Have I checked SUA for activity along my route of flight)




3−1−1. General


a. There are two categories of airspace or airspace


areas:


1. Regulatory (Class A, B, C, D and E airspace


areas, restricted and prohibited areas); and


2. Nonregulatory (military operations areas


(MOAs), warning areas, alert areas, and controlled


firing areas).


NOTE−


Additional information on special use airspace (prohibited


areas, restricted areas, warning areas, MOAs, alert areas


and controlled firing areas) may be found in Chapter 3,


Airspace, Section 4, Special Use Airspace, paragraphs


3−4−1 through 3−4−7.


b. Within these two categories, there are four


types:


1. Controlled,


2. Uncontrolled,


3. Special use, and


4. Other airspace.


c. The categories and types of airspace are dictated


by:


1. The complexity or density of aircraft


movements,


2. The nature of the operations conducted


within the airspace,


3. The level of safety required, and


4. The national and public interest.




Class A-E, G


Special Use Airspace (SUA)



Skills


The applicant demonstrates the ability to:


PA.I.E.S1


Explain the requirements for basic VFR weather minimums and flying in particular


classes of airspace, to include SUA, SFRA, and TFR.





Basic VFR Weather Minimums







Sec. 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums.



(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and


Sec. 91.157, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR when the flight


visibility is less, or at a distance from clouds that is less, than that


prescribed for the corresponding altitude and class of airspace in the


following table:




Distance from


Airspace Flight visibility clouds



Class A........................ Not Applicable..... Not Applicable.


Class B........................ 3 statute miles.... Clear of Clouds.


Class C........................ 3 statute miles.... 500 feet below.


................... 1,000 feet above.


................... 2,000 feet


horizontal.


Class D........................ 3 statute miles.... 500 feet below.


................... 1,000 feet above.


................... 2,000 feet


horizontal.


Class E:


Less than 10,000 feet MSL.. 3 statute miles.... 500 feet below.


................... 1,000 feet above.


................... 2,000 feet


horizontal.


At or above 10,000 feet MSL 5 statute miles.... 1,000 feet below.


................... 1,000 feet above.


................... 1 statute mile


horizontal.


Class G:


1,200 feet or less above


the surface (regardless of


MSL altitude)


For aircraft other than


helicopters:


Day, except as provided in 1 statute mile..... Clear of clouds.


Sec. 91.155(b).


Night, except as provided 3 statute miles.... 500 feet below.


in Sec. 91.155(b).


................... 1,000 feet above.


................... 2,000 feet


horizontal.


For helicopters:


Day........................ \1/2\ statute mile. Clear of clouds


Night, except as provided 1 statute mile..... Clear of clouds.


in Sec. 91.155(b).


More than 1,200 feet above


the surface but less than


10,000 feet MSL


Day.................... 1 statute mile..... 500 feet below.


................... 1,000 feet above.


................... 2,000 feet


horizontal.


Night.................. 3 statute miles.... 500 feet below.


................... 1,000 feet above.


................... 2,000 feet


horizontal.


More than 1,200 feet above 5 statute miles.... 1,000 feet below.


the surface and at or


above 10,000 feet MSL.


................... 1,000 feet above.


................... 1 statute mile


horizontal.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



(b) Class G Airspace. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph


(a) of this section, the following operations may be conducted in Class


G airspace below 1,200 feet above the surface:


(1) Helicopter. A helicopter may be operated clear of clouds in an


airport traffic pattern within \1/2\ mile of the runway or helipad of


intended landing if the flight visibility is not less than \1/2\ statute


mile.


(2) Airplane, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft.


If the visibility is less than 3 statute miles but not less than 1


statute mile during night hours and you are operating in an airport


traffic pattern within \1/2\ mile of the runway, you may operate an


airplane, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft clear of


clouds.


(c) Except as provided in Sec. 91.157, no person may operate an


aircraft beneath the ceiling under VFR within the lateral boundaries of


controlled airspace designated to the surface for an airport when the


ceiling is less than 1,000 feet.


(d) Except as provided in Sec. 91.157 of this part, no person may


take off or land an aircraft, or enter the traffic pattern of an


airport, under VFR, within the lateral boundaries of the surface areas


of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for an


airport--


(1) Unless ground visibility at that airport is at least 3 statute


miles; or


(2) If ground visibility is not reported at that airport, unless


flight visibility during landing or takeoff, or while operating in the


traffic pattern is at least 3 statute miles.



[[Page 844]]



(e) For the purpose of this section, an aircraft operating at the


base altitude of a Class E airspace area is considered to be within the


airspace directly below that area.



[Doc. No. 24458, 56 FR 65660, Dec. 17, 1991, as amended by Amdt. 91-235,


58 FR 51968, Oct. 5, 1993; Amdt. 91-282, 69 FR 44880, July 27, 2004;


Amdt. 91-330, 79 FR 9972, Feb. 21, 2014; Amdt. 91-330A, 79 FR 41125,


July 15, 2014]





Sec. 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (ATC clearance, Vsby>=1sm,


Dist fm Clds=Clear of Clds)



(a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part,


special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and


requirements of this section, instead of those contained in Sec. 91.155,


below 10,000 feet MSL within the airspace contained by the upward


extension of the lateral boundaries of the controlled airspace


designated to the surface for an airport.


(b) Special VFR operations may only be conducted--


(1) With an ATC clearance;


(2) Clear of clouds;


(3) Except for helicopters, when flight visibility is at least 1


statute mile; and


(4) Except for helicopters, between sunrise and sunset (or in


Alaska, when the sun is 6 degrees or more below the horizon) unless--


(i) The person being granted the ATC clearance meets the applicable


requirements for instrument flight under part 61 of this chapter; and


(ii) The aircraft is equipped as required in Sec. 91.205(d).


(c) No person may take off or land an aircraft (other than a


helicopter) under special VFR--


(1) Unless ground visibility is at least 1 statute mile; or


(2) If ground visibility is not reported, unless flight visibility


is at least 1 statute mile. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term


flight visibility includes the visibility from the cockpit of an


aircraft in takeoff position if:


(i) The flight is conducted under this part 91; and


(ii) The airport at which the aircraft is located is a satellite


airport that does not have weather reporting capabilities.


(d) The determination of visibility by a pilot in accordance with


paragraph (c)(2) of this section is not an official weather report or an


official ground visibility report.



[Amdt. 91-235, 58 FR 51968, Oct. 5, 1993, as amended by Amdt. 91-247, 60


FR 66874, Dec. 27, 1995; Amdt. 91-262, 65 FR 16116, Mar. 24, 2000]

















Requirements for flying in particular classes of airspace, to include SUA, SFRA, and TFR.



SUA (Prohibited, Restricted, Warning, MOAs, MTRs, NSAs)


Have I checked Sectional Chart for Active Times, Altitudes, Controlling


Agency? Have I checked NOTAMs for SUA Activity?



SFRA (FAR 93)


Have I received the proper training to fly in my planned SFRA


(Wash DC SFRA, NY SFRA, Anchorage)?



TFR-


Have I checked for TFRs along my route of flight and reviewed the


details(times, altitudes, controlling agency) of the FDC NOTAM for


the associated TFRs along my route?






PA.I.E.S2


Correctly identify airspace and operate in accordance with associated communication and equipment requirements.



Added new here











Airspace Reference Card found at FAASafety.gov(PDF)



Added New here










A – 018-600


B – sfc – 100 MSL


MODE C sfc – 100 MSL (altitude rptg transpdr required)


C – sfc – 040 AGL


D- sfc-025 AGL


E – 007/012 AGL to 17,999 MSL


G – 007/012 AGL or sfc to 145 MSL


>= 10,000 MSL (Alt. Rptg Transpndr required)












CHECKLIST for Airspace Compliance


Do I meet the Weather, Equipment, Pilot requirements for the Airspace Class(es) I plan to fly?




FAASafety.gov AirSpace Reference Card (PDF) Link



FAASafety.gov AirSpace RefCard (backup link)PDF



Use the Sectional Chart Legend as a Quick Checklist for Airspace along your flight (Are any of these going to occur along my planned or alternate route of flight?)





AirSpace Classes Sectional Chart Legend:












SUA Sectional Chart Legend






AirSpace Text Checklist--Detailed (check off any from the list below that will occur along my planned/alternate route of flight)(Have I met WEP(Weather Mins, Equip, Pilot Cert) requirements?)


__ A


__ B


__ C


__ D


__ E


__ E (surface-based Class E non-towered Airport, or airport extensions)


__ G


__ D(under Mode C)


__ E (under Mode C)


__ G (under Mode C)


__ MODE C


__ SVFR (91.157)



Special Use Airspace (SUA)(check Sectional/NOTAMs for operating times, altitudes, controlling agency, ctc cntrllg agcy or lcl TRACON for Trffc Advsys)


__ Prohibited (no fly zone)


__ Restricted (req tfc advsys)


__ TFR (no fly zone)


__ Warning (req tfc advsys


__ NSA


__ SFR/SFRA(FAR 93-Black box apt) Special Apt Traffic Area(spcl crs/instr req.)


__ MOA (req tfc Advsys)


__ MTRs (gray line) (req tfc Advsys fm tracon/ctr)


__ Alert (req tfc Advsys)


__ Controlled Firing Area (not charted)(should determine if going to fly thru one)


__ ADIZ (DVFR, 2-way rdo, alt rptg trpdr)


__ TRSA (treat as Class C/D apt)


__ SFAR


__ Emergency Air Traffic Rules





If I have checked any of the SUA options, have I checked the FAA SUA/TFR websites for current activity?



TFR Lookup (FAA)



FAA Active TFR Map Link



FAA Active TFR List link



FAA PilotWeb FDC TFR NOTAM Lookup by Flight Path (TFRs presented in Text only)(not as easy to use as map links above which display the TFR over the Sectional Chart)



Skyvector.com (displays TFRs and UAS airspace)



SUA Lookup (FAA) (This Lookup finds other SUA in addition to TFRs such as MTRs. TFRs are included in the SUA search results as well) (FAA site)



FAA Active SUA Map Link



Have I contacted FSS (122.2) or 1-800-WX Brief about the TFRs/SUAs?



Have I created a flight plan/nav log and received a STD Briefing from Flight Service online (1800wxbrief.com)











Task


F. Performance and Limitations


References


FAA-H-8083-1, FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-25; POH/AFM



Objective


To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with operating an aircraft safely within the parameters of its performance capabilities and limitations.


Knowledge


The applicant demonstrates understanding of:


PA.I.F.K1


Elements related to performance and limitations by explaining the use of charts, tables, and data to determine performance.



(Reference POH charts for V-speeds, white, green and yellow arcs, Wt/Bal, GPH, etc.)


PA.I.F.K2


Factors affecting performance to include:


PA.I.F.K2a


a. Atmospheric conditions


High, Hot, Humid (Density Altitude)


Turbulence


Extremes in temperature (very cold increases performance)


Winds


PA.I.F.K2b


b. Pilot technique


Leaning engine > 3000 ft for max engine power


Trim use to reduce fatigue on long flights


PA.I.F.K2c


c. Aircraft condition


Older plane/old engine may not produce max rated power


PA.I.F.K2d


d. Airport environment


Building/hanger location could cause turbulence during landing


Uneven heating of airport surface could cause turbulence in pttn


PA.I.F.K2e


e. Loading


Weight/Balance: Fwd CG(keeping nose up during ldg problem)Aft CG (stall recovery difficulty)


Overweight plane (unable to takeoff, or only takeoff into grnd effect but not climb out; if able to climb out, climb rate will be very slow)


Fuel empty plane (5 gal remaining) has more nose down tendency than full plane)


PA.I.F.K2f


f. Weight and balance


Weight/Balance: Fwd CG(keeping nose up during ldg problem)Aft CG (stall recovery difficulty)


Get Accurate weight from POH insert, from mechanic for accurate Wt/Bal


PA.I.F.K3


Aerodynamics.


Ensure to maintain Va if abrupt maneuvers are anticipated


Flaps increase drag and enable steeper decent w/o increasing airspeed


Fwd slip increases drag and descent rate


Coordinated flight (ball center) creates most aerodynamic/efficient flying


Risk Management


The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:


PA.I.F.R1


Inaccurate use of manufacturer’s performance charts, tables and data.


2x check Wt/Bal (CG) and loading arrangement (rear baggage areas have max weights(1)=120lbs, (2)most rear=50lbs), Fuel burn (GPH), max speeds in certain conditions (full flaps-85k) so not to exceed load factors



PA.I.F.R2


Exceeding aircraft limitations


Overweight=no takeoff, or only in gnd efft, CG(fwd/aft)(controllability problems), exceeding Va during flight maneuvers (bend airplane structure), go too far (run out of gas resulting in a emergency ldg)


PA.I.F.R3


Possible differences between actual aircraft performance and published aircraft performance data.


POH perf data is for new aircraft, current aircraft may not produce as much power (at full pwr) now compared to when new, actual weather different from forecast, perf calc errors, piloting technique (leaning >3000, not using trim, flying uncoordinated) may reduce/increase diff btwn actual and published performance


Skills


The applicant demonstrates the ability to:


PA.I.F.S1


Compute the weight and balance, correct out-of-center of gravity (CG) loading errors and determine if the weight and balance remains within limits during all phases of flight.


See Wt/Bal calcs



Category


Weight x


Arm =


Moment


TTLmmt/TTLwt=CG


Plane


1684.355


38.93


65572



PxFrnt


400


40


16000



PxRr


200


73


14600



Cgo1


20


95


1900



Cgo2


5


123


615



Fuel


147


48


7056



Total


2456.355



105,743


105,743 /


2456.355=


43.05 (CG)





(If weight within limits but CG out of limits:


Rearrange items in plane (or add weight) to get CG within limits)



Plane arm = 38.93



determine if the weight and balance remains within limits during all phases of flight (determine CG position after fuel burn)



CG moves fwd about 1 inch max in a 172R with 30 gal fuel burn



PA.I.F.S2


Demonstrate use of the appropriate aircraft manufacturer’s approved performance charts, tables and data.


V-speeds


Ldg/TO Dist Calcs


Climb performance (speed/fuel usage) (in IAS, time, Gal)


Cruise performance (TAS, GPH)


(see completed NavLog for X-Cntry frm SAC-CIC)













Task


G. Operation of Systems


References


FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23, FAA-H-8083-25; POH/AFM.



Objective


To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with the safe operation of systems on the airplane provided for the flight test.


Knowledge


The applicant demonstrates understanding of:


PA.I.G.K1


Aircraft systems, to include:


PA.I.G.K1a


a. Primary flight controls and trim


Ailerons, controls roll


elevator, controls pitch


rudder, controls yaw (centered ball on turn coordinator)


Throttle (regulate air amt to engine)


Mixture (regulate fuel amt to engine)


Trim used to keep the plane in balance in flight and relieve control pressure (trim is considered a secondary flight control)



PA.I.G.K1b


b. Secondary flight controls


Flaps (increase rate of descent w/o increasing airspeed) 10 deg. Of flps = lift, 20-30 deg. Of flps produce drag


Trim keeps plane in balance and reduces control pressures during long flights and steep turns


PA.I.G.K1c


c. Powerplant and propeller



IO-360-L2A Lycoming 4 cyl engine (air cooled)


75 inch 2-blade propeller


PA.I.G.K1d


d. Landing gear



Main gear-spring steel with disc brakes


From wheel hydraulic shock



PA.I.G.K1e


e. Fuel, oil, and hydraulic


Fuel


100 LL, 56/53 (26.5 gal usable each side) gal usable, Fuel gauges are electrically powered

FUEL SYSTEM


The airplane fuel system (see Figure 7-6) consists of two vented


integral fuel tanks (one tank in each wing), a three-position selector


valve, auxiliary fuel pump, fuel shutoff valve, fuel strainer, engine


driven fuel pump, fuel/air control unit, fuel distribution valve and fuel


injection nozzles.

FUEL DISTRIBUTION


Fuel flows by gravity from the two wing tanks to a three-position


selector valve, labeled BOTH, RIGHT and LEFT and on to the


reservoir tank. From the reservoir tank fuel flows through the


auxiliary fuel pump, past the fuel shutoff valve, through the fuel


strainer to an engine driven fuel pump.


From the engine driven fuel pump, fuel is delivered to the fuel/air


control unit, where it is metered and directed to a fuel distribution


valve (manifold) which distributes it to each cylinder. Fuel flow into


each cylinder is continuous, and flow rate is determined by the


amount of air passing through the fuel/air control unit.


FUEL INDICATING


Fuel quantity is measured by two float type fuel quantity


transmitters (one in each tank) and indicated by an electrically


operated fuel quantity indicator on the left side of the instrument


panel. The gauges are marked in gallons of fuel.


Anytime fuel in the tank drops below approximately 5 gallons (and


remains below this level for more than 60 seconds), the amber


LOW FUEL message will flash on the annunciator panel for


approximately 10 seconds and then remain steady amber.

Fuel pressure is measured by use of a transducer mounted near


the fuel manifold. This transducer produces an electrical signal


which is translated for the cockpit-mounted indicator in gallons-per hour.


Oil


Oil, 8 qts (req 6 qts for operation, never <5) Temp/Pressure gauge can operate without electrical power (just like the engine can operate w/o electrical pwr cause of magnetos)


Oil Pressure


Annunciator panel illuminates OIL PRESS when low oil pressure <20 psi occurs



When oil pressure is below 20 PSI, the switch grounds and


completes the annunciator circuit, illuminating the red OIL PRESS


light.



Oil temperature


Oil temperature signals are generated from a resistance-type


probe located in the engine accessory case. As oil temperature


changes, the probe resistance changes. This resistance is


translated into oil temperature readings on the cockpit indicator.



Page 7-20, 172R POH


Never lean using EGT when operating at


more than 80% power.








Hydraulic (front ldg gear)


BRAKE SYSTEM


The airplane has a single-disc, hydraulically actuated brake on


each main landing gear wheel. Each brake is connected, by a


hydraulic line, to a master cylinder attached to each of the pilot's


rudder pedals.




PA.I.G.K1f


f. Electrical


ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


The airplane is equipped with a 28-volt, direct current electrical


system (Refer to Figure 7-7). The system is powered by a belt driven,


60-amp alternator and a 24-volt battery, located on the left


forward side of the firewall.


LOW VOLTAGE ANNUNCIATION


The low voltage warning annunciator is incorporated in the


annunciator panel and activates when voltage falls below 24.5 volts.


If low voltage is detected, the red annunciation VOLTS will flash for


approximately 10 seconds before illuminating steadily. The pilot


cannot turn off the annunciator.


In the event an overvoltage condition occurs, the alternator


control unit automatically opens the ALT FLD circuit breaker,


removing alternator field current and shutting off the alternator. The


battery will then supply system current as shown by a discharge


rate on the ammeter. Under these conditions, depending on


electrical system load, the low voltage warning annunciator will


illuminate when system voltage drops below normal. The alternator


control unit may be reset by resetting the circuit breaker. If the low


voltage warning annunciator extinguishes, normal alternator


charging has resumed; however, if the annunciator illuminates


again, a malfunction has occurred, and the flight should be


terminated as soon as practical.



PA.I.G.K1g


g. Avionics


Garmin 650 GPS(includes 1 Nav/Com radio), Lynx L3 ADS-B, 1 extra Comm Nav(VOR) radio, 1 ADF, intercom system and external microphone.






PA.I.G.K1h


h. Pitot-static, vacuum/pressure, and associated flight instruments


Pitot/Static


Airspeed indicator (pitot tube, static air driven)


Altimeter (static air)


Vertical Speed indicator (static air)



(Know the indications with a blocked pitot tube, blocked static port), if static port is blocked, pull alt static knob inside plane to use alt static source



If Pitot tube is blocked, what do the three instruments show?


If the static source is blocked what do the instruments show?




Blocked pitot tube (Airspeed indicator only) (speed up in climb, slow down on descents)



A blocked pitot tube is a pitot-static problem that will only affect airspeed indicators.[5] A blocked pitot tube will cause the airspeed indicator to register an increase in airspeed when the aircraft climbs, even though actual airspeed is constant.(As long as the drain hole is also blocked, as the air pressure would otherwise leak out to the atmosphere) This is caused by the pressure in the pitot system remaining constant when the atmospheric pressure (and static pressure) are decreasing. In reverse, the airspeed indicator will show a decrease in airspeed when the aircraft descends. The pitot tube is susceptible to becoming clogged by ice, water, insects or some other obstruction.[5] For this reason, aviation regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommend that the pitot tube be checked for obstructions prior to any flight.[4] To prevent icing, many pitot tubes are equipped with a heating element. A heated pitot tube is required in all aircraft certificated for instrument flight except aircraft certificated as Experimental Amateur-Built.[5]



Blocked static port(Airspeed, Vertical Speed, Altimeter)



A blocked static port is a more serious situation because it affects all pitot-static instruments.[5] One of the most common causes of a blocked static port is airframe icing. A blocked static port will cause the altimeter to freeze at a constant value, the altitude at which the static port became blocked. The vertical speed indicator will become frozen at zero and will not change at all, even if vertical speed increases or decreases. The airspeed indicator will reverse the error that occurs with a clogged pitot tube and cause the airspeed to be read less than it actually is as the aircraft climbs. When the aircraft is descending, the airspeed will be over-reported. In most aircraft with unpressurized cabins, an alternative static source is available and can be selected from within the cockpit.[5]






vacuum/pressure, and associated flight instruments


Attitude indicator


Heading Gyro


(vacuum gauge shows status of 2 engine driven vacuum pumps)



Turn Coordinator is electrically powered/inclinometer is a ball within kerosene (so it’ll work when pwr is out) An inclinometer contains a ball sealed inside a curved glass tube, which also contains a liquid to act as a damping medium.



PA.I.G.K1i


i. Environmental


Air vents in front (4)


Air vents for rear seats


Door opens right side outside front of plane to provide ram air with pull-out of knob


Heat provided by pull knob from shroud around exhaust pipe



Windows can be opened up to 163knots




PA.I.G.K1j


j. Deicing and anti-icing



Windshield defrost


air is also supplied by two ducts leading from the cabin manifold to


defroster outlets near the lower edge of the windshield. Two knobs


control sliding valves in either defroster outlet to permit regulation of


defroster airflow.




PA.I.G.K1k


k. Water rudders (ASES, AMES)


PA.I.G.K1l


l. Oxygen system



172R doesn’t have Oxygen system. Need to bring bottled oxygen for high alt. flt



PA.I.G.K2


Indications of system abnormalities or failures.




See POH for symptoms of problems (in addition to annunciator lights and gauges out of proper operating range)




Risk Management


The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:


PA.I.G.R1


Failure to identify system malfunctions or failures.



See POH for indications of failures (check annunciator panel, gauges and engine sounds)


PA.I.G.R2


Improper handling of a system failure.



Follow POH checklist for system/equipment failures



PA.I.G.R3


Failure to monitor and manage automated systems.



Monitor and correct compass heading when using autopilot


Skills


The applicant demonstrates the ability to:


PA.I.G.S1


Explain and operate at least three of the systems listed in K1a through K1l above.



Oil



Fuel system and gauges (fuel quantity and full pressure GPH flow rate gauge next to EGT gauge)



Electrical



Pitot / Static



PA.I.G.S2


Properly use appropriate checklists.



POH checklists for normal and emergency processes


Ch. 3 for Emergency Procedures/Amplified Emergency Procedures


Ch. 4 Normal Procedures + Pre-flight Checklist and Engine starting







Task


H. Human Factors


References


FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-25; AIM



Objective


To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with personal health, flight physiology, aeromedical and human factors, as it relates to safety of flight.


Note: See Appendix 6: Safety of Flight.


Knowledge


The applicant demonstrates understanding of:


PA.I.H.K1


Symptoms, recognition, causes, effects, and corrective actions associated with aeromedical and physiological issues including:


PA.I.H.K1a


a. Hypoxia



What is it?


Lack of oxygen to the brain.


Hypoxia is a state of oxygen deficiency in the


body sufficient to impair functions of the brain and


other organs. Hypoxia from exposure to altitude is


due only to the reduced barometric pressures


encountered at altitude, for the concentration of


oxygen in the atmosphere remains about 21 percent


from the ground out to space.



symptoms,


poor judgement, laughing, think doing great, but not(euphoria), blueness in fingernails (deep hypoxia> 15,000 ft) headache, drowsiness, dizziness and either a


sense of well-being (euphoria) or belligerence occur.



Although a deterioration in night vision


occurs at a cabin pressure altitude as low as


5,000 feet, other significant effects of altitude


hypoxia usually do not occur in the normal healthy


pilot below 12,000 feet. From 12,000 to 15,000 feet


of altitude, judgment, memory, alertness, coordination


and ability to make calculations are impaired,


and headache, drowsiness, dizziness and either a


sense of well-being (euphoria) or belligerence occur.


The effects appear following increasingly shorter


periods of exposure to increasing altitude. In fact,


pilot performance can seriously deteriorate within


15 minutes at 15,000 feet.



recognition,


sense of well-being (euphoria) or belligerence, blue fingernails (with advanced hypoxia >15,000 ft alt.), can’t perform simple calculations (D=rt)


At cabin pressure altitudes above 15,000 feet,


the periphery of the visual field grays out to a point


where only central vision remains (tunnel vision).


However, The effects of hypoxia are usually quite


difficult to recognize, especially when they occur


gradually. Since symptoms of hypoxia do not vary in


an individual, the ability to recognize hypoxia can be


greatly improved by experiencing and witnessing the


effects of hypoxia during an altitude chamber


“flight.” The FAA provides this opportunity through


aviation physiology training, which is conducted at


the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute




causes,


being at too high an altitude without supplemental oxygen


Extreme heat and cold, fever,


and anxiety increase the body’s demand for oxygen,


and hence its susceptibility to hypoxia.




effects,


judgment, memory, alertness, coordination


and ability to make calculations are impaired



corrective actions


Descend and/or use supplemental oxygen




AIM 8-1-3


Hypoxia is prevented by heeding factors that


reduce tolerance to altitude, by enriching the inspired


air with oxygen from an appropriate oxygen system,


and by maintaining a comfortable, safe cabin


pressure altitude. For optimum protection, pilots are


encouraged to use supplemental oxygen above


10,000 feet during the day, and above 5,000 feet at


night. The CFRs require that at the minimum, flight


crew be provided with and use supplemental oxygen


after 30 minutes of exposure to cabin pressure


altitudes between 12,500 and 14,000 feet and


immediately on exposure to cabin pressure altitudes


above 14,000 feet. Every occupant of the aircraft


must be provided with supplemental oxygen at cabin


pressure altitudes above 15,000 feet.


AIM 12/10/15


8−1−4 Fitness for Flight


PA.I.H.K1b


b. Hyperventilation


What is it?


abnormal increase in


the volume of air breathed in and out of the lungs, can


occur subconsciously when a stressful situation is


encountered in flight. Hyperventilation “blows


off” excessive carbon dioxide from the body,



symptoms,


lightheadedness,


suffocation, drowsiness, tingling in the extremities,



•Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, weak, or not able to think straight


•Feeling as if you can't catch your breath


•Chest pain or fast and pounding heartbeat


•Belching or bloating


•Dry mouth


•Muscle spasms in the hands and feet


•Numbness and tingling in the arms or around the mouth


•Problems sleeping




As hyperventilation “blows


off” excessive carbon dioxide from the body, a pilot


can experience symptoms of lightheadedness,


suffocation, drowsiness, tingling in the extremities,


and coolness and react to them with even greater


hyperventilation. Incapacitation can eventually result


from incoordination, disorientation, and painful


muscle spasms. Finally, unconsciousness can occur.



recognition,


Early symptoms of hyperventilation and


hypoxia are similar.


lightheadedness,


suffocation, drowsiness, tingling in the extremities,




causes,


stressful situation





effects, and


Incapacitation can eventually result


from incoordination, disorientation, and painful


muscle spasms. Finally, unconsciousness can occur.




corrective actions


slow the rate and depth of


breathing. The buildup of carbon dioxide in the body


can be hastened by controlled breathing in and out of


a paper bag held over the nose and mouth.



Hyperventilation and


hypoxia can occur at the same time. Therefore, if a


pilot is using an oxygen system when symptoms are


experienced, the oxygen regulator should immediately


be set to deliver 100 percent oxygen, and then the


system checked to assure that it has been functioning


effectively before giving attention to rate and depth of


breathing.




PA.I.H.K1c


c. Middle ear and sinus problems


What is it?


Ear and sinus passages blocked by cold/flu congestion leading to pain, hearing loss


As pressure differences between body and outside cannot be equalized. Pressure differences can lead to pain and hearing loss., headache


Sinus block (because pressure cannot equalize) leads to pain over eyebrows and cheeks.



symptoms,


pain, hearing loss, headache



recognition,



causes,


cold/flu/allergy blocks normal ear tube function leading to ear pain/loss of hearing



effects, and




corrective actions


Don’t fly until completely congestion free.


Taking drugs may clear some congestion in sinuses and ears but not adequately enough to prevent ear block or sinus problems that occur in flight. Decongestant meds may cause tiredness, and lead to impaired performance.(decrease in motor/brain function)



PA.I.H.K1d


d. Spatial disorientation


Spatial disorientation specifically refers to the lack of orientation with regard to the position, attitude, or movement of the airplane in space.


Under normal flight conditions, when there is a visual reference to the horizon and ground, the sensory system in the inner ear helps to identify the pitch, roll, and yaw movements of the aircraft. When visual contact with the horizon is lost, the vestibular system becomes unreliable. Without visual references outside the aircraft, there are many situations in which combinations of normal motions and forces create convincing illusions that are difficult to overcome.



The vestibular system in the inner ear allows the pilot to sense movement and determine orientation in the surrounding environment. In both the left and right inner ear, three semicircular canals are positioned at approximate right angles to each other. [Figure 17-3] Each canal is filled with fluid and has a section full of fine hairs. Acceleration of the inner ear in any direction causes the tiny hairs to deflect, which in turn stimulates nerve impulses, sending messages to the brain. The vestibular nerve transmits the impulses from the


utricle(horiz),


saccule(vertical), and


semicircular canals(activated when in motion 3 d, roll, pitch, yaw)


to the brain to interpret motion.


Utricle detects horizontal acceleration and determines the orientation of the head and the organ is oriented horizontally, the CaCO3 crystal/rocks on top of nerve-connected cilia resist movement by attempting to stay in same spot (inertia) before gravity/stronger forces force the CaCO3 to move) ( looks like ___ )


Saccule detects vertical acceleration. CaCO3 resist movement unless overcome by greater forces)


The saccule, like the utricle, provides information to the brain about head position when it is not moving. They also detect acceleration/deceleration.



Located near the semicircular canals are the utricle and the saccule. The ends of the semicircular canals connect with the utricle, and the utricle connects with the saccule. The semicircular canals provide information about movement of the head. The sensory hair cells of the utricle and saccule provide information to the brain about head position when it is not moving. The utricle is sensitive to change in horizontal movement. The saccule is sensitive to the change in vertical acceleration (such as going up in an elevator).




symptoms,


feeling of being in an orientation that doesn’t match what is actually happening (what is displayed by instruments) (like thinking you are in level flight when in fact are turning)


or you are going straight up or straight down (causing you to put the plane into a fatal dive or stall if the disorientation/illusion is not recognized)





recognition,


Have a positional feeling that is different than presented by instruments, but REFRAIN from taking action because we understand that the body senses are incorrect in this situation and we need to rely on the instruments (because these senses were only designed to function on land.)



causes,


conflicts in human position, orientation, balance system (visual, somatosensory, vestibular system) and what airplane instruments are showing.


When visual contact with the horizon is lost, the vestibular system becomes unreliable. Without visual references outside the aircraft, there are many situations in which combinations of normal motions and forces create convincing illusions that are difficult to overcome.



effects, and


altered flight attitude (stall, dive, spin, spiral), crash


In most of these spatial disorienting scenarios/illusions The disoriented pilot may maneuver the aircraft into a dangerous attitude in an attempt to correct the


aircraft’s perceived attitude.



Types of Spatial Disorientation



Leans (vestibular cannot detect turn rate of <2 degrees/sec or lower)


Coriolis (plane perceived to be in an entirely different position because of head mvt)


AIM version


Coriolis illusion. An abrupt head movement


in a prolonged constant-rate turn that has ceased


stimulating the motion sensing system can create the


illusion of rotation or movement in an entirely


different axis. The disoriented pilot will maneuver the


aircraft into a dangerous attitude in an attempt to stop


rotation. This most overwhelming of all illusions in


flight may be prevented by not making sudden,


extreme head movements, particularly while making


prolonged constant-rate turns under IFR conditions.



Graveyard spiral


Somatogravic Illusion (think in nose-high attitude on takeoff, put in dive an crash, or nose low if rapidly decelerate)


Inversion Illusion (abruptly chg fm climb to lvl flt, gives falling backwards illusion,(frm stimulating otolith organ (utricule/saccule)(otoconia CaCO3 rocks slide backward abruptly before moving forward, both utricule/saccule CaCO3 slide backward) causing pilot to put plane in dive if not recognized as illusion)


Elevator Illusion(abrupt vertical acceleration, updraft, stimulates saccule to think pilot is in a climb, if believed, pilot puts plane in a dive to correct)


Visual Illusions


Visual illusions are especially hazardous because pilots rely


on their eyes for correct information. Two illusions that lead


to spatial disorientation, false horizon and autokinesis, affect


the visual system only.


False Horizon


A sloping cloud formation, an obscured horizon, an aurora


borealis, a dark scene spread with ground lights and stars,


and certain geometric patterns of ground lights can provide


inaccurate visual information, or “false horizon,” when


attempting to align the aircraft with the actual horizon.


The disoriented pilots as a result may place the aircraft in a


dangerous attitude.



Autokinesis


When flying in the dark, a stationary light may appear to


move if it is stared at for a prolonged period of time. As


a result, a pilot may attempt to align the aircraft with the


perceived moving light potentially causing him/her to lose


control of the aircraft. This illusion is known as “autokinesis.”





corrective actions


prevent getting into situation that could lead loss of visual contact with the horizon resulting in disorientation like IMC or flying at night with no illuminated horizon.



Prevention is usually the best remedy for spatial disorientation.


Unless a pilot has many hours of training in instrument flight,


flight should be avoided in reduced visibility or at night when


the horizon is not visible. A pilot can reduce susceptibility to


disorienting illusions through training and awareness and


learning to rely totally on flight instruments.





Coping with Spatial Disorientation (PHAK)


To prevent illusions and their potentially disastrous consequences, pilots can:


1.


Understand the causes of these illusions and remain constantly alert for them. Take the opportunity to experience spatial disorientation illusions in a device, such as a Barany chair, a Vertigon, or a Virtual Reality Spatial Disorientation Demonstrator.


2.


Always obtain and understand preflight weather briefings.


3.


Before flying in marginal visibility (less than 3 miles) or where a visible horizon is not evident, such as flight over open water during the night, obtain training and maintain proficiency in aircraft control by reference to instruments.


4.


Do not fly into adverse weather conditions or into dusk or darkness unless proficient in the use of flight instruments. If intending to fly at night, maintain


17-9


night-flight currency and proficiency. Include cross-country and local operations at various airfields.


5.


Ensure that when outside visual references are used, they are reliable, fixed points on the Earth’s surface.


6.


Avoid sudden head movement, particularly during takeoffs, turns, and approaches to landing.


7.


Be physically tuned for flight into reduced visibility. Ensure proper rest, adequate diet, and, if flying at night, allow for night adaptation. Remember that illness, medication, alcohol, fatigue, sleep loss, and mild hypoxia are likely to increase susceptibility to spatial disorientation.


8.


Most importantly, become proficient in the use of flight instruments and rely upon them. Trust the instruments and disregard your sensory perceptions.




The sensations that lead to illusions during instrument flight conditions are normal perceptions experienced by pilots. These undesirable sensations cannot be completely prevented, but through training and awareness, pilots can ignore or suppress them by developing absolute reliance on the flight instruments. As pilots gain proficiency in instrument flying, they become less susceptible to these illusions and their effects.




AIM 8-1-5


b. Illusions Leading to Spatial Disorientation.


1. Various complex motions and forces and


certain visual scenes encountered in flight can create


illusions of motion and position. Spatial disorientation


from these illusions can be prevented only by


visual reference to reliable, fixed points on the ground


or to flight instruments.






PA.I.H.K1e


e. Motion sickness


(not in AIM) in PHAK


Motion sickness, or airsickness, is caused by the brain receiving conflicting messages about the state of the body.




symptoms,


general discomfort, nausea, dizziness, paleness, sweating, and vomiting.




recognition,


causes,


Anxiety and stress, which may be experienced at the beginning of flight training, can contribute to motion sickness.



effects, and


corrective actions


If symptoms of motion sickness are experienced during a lesson, opening fresh air vents, focusing on objects outside the airplane, and avoiding unnecessary head movements may help alleviate some of the discomfort. Although medications like


Meds for motion sickness cause tiredness and impair function


Dramamine can prevent airsickness in passengers, they are not recommended while flying since they can cause drowsiness and other problems.



PA.I.H.K1f


f. Carbon monoxide poisoning


What is it?


Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, and


tasteless gas contained in exhaust fumes. When


breathed even in minute quantities over a period of


time, it can significantly reduce the ability of the


blood to carry oxygen. Consequently, effects of


hypoxia occur.



symptoms,


red fingernails,


headache, drowsiness, or


dizziness



recognition,


headache, drowsiness, or


dizziness, smell of engine exhaust in cabin



causes,


Most heaters in light aircraft work by air


flowing over the manifold. Use of these heaters while


exhaust fumes are escaping through manifold cracks


and seals is responsible every year for several


nonfatal and fatal aircraft accidents from carbon


monoxide poisoning.




effects, and


CO poisoning should be similar to hypoxia:


judgment, memory, alertness, coordination


and ability to make calculations are impaired




corrective actions


A pilot who detects the odor of exhaust or


experiences symptoms of headache, drowsiness, or


dizziness while using the heater should suspect


carbon monoxide poisoning, and immediately shut


off the heater and open air vents.


If symptoms are


severe or continue after landing, medical treatment


should be sought.



PA.I.H.K1g


g. Stress and fatigue



What is fatigue?


acute fatigue is the tiredness felt after long periods of


physical and mental strain, including strenuous


muscular effort, immobility, heavy mental workload,


strong emotional pressure, monotony, and lack of


sleep.


Chronic fatigue occurs when there is not


enough time for full recovery between episodes of


acute fatigue.




symptoms,


feel tired,



recognition,


errors made, coordination/alertness reduced, judgement impaired





causes,


lack of rest, physical/emotional strain and/or overwork



effects, and


coordination and alertness reduced


Performance continues to fall off, and


judgment becomes impaired so that unwarranted


risks may be taken.



corrective actions


Acute


fatigue is prevented by adequate rest and sleep, as


well as by regular exercise and proper nutrition.


Recovery from chronic fatigue


requires a prolonged period of rest.



Fatigue reduces brain function/motor function contrary to safe flight.


impair


judgment, memory, alertness, and the ability to make


calculations.



Common statement in Fitness for Flight AIM section (when presenting each category)


(Condition Name can).impair judgment, memory, alertness, coordination,


vision, and the ability to make calculations.



OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA (OSA). Can prevent proper rest and result in fatigue related impairments.




Stress


AIM (Full text about Stress—this is it ) 8-1-2


1. Stress from the pressures of everyday living


can impair pilot performance, often in very subtle


ways. Difficulties, particularly at work, can occupy


thought processes enough to markedly decrease


alertness. Distraction can so interfere with judgment


that unwarranted risks are taken, such as flying into


deteriorating weather conditions to keep on schedule.


Stress and fatigue (see above) can be an extremely


hazardous combination.


2. Most pilots do not leave stress “on the


ground.” Therefore, when more than usual difficulties


are being experienced, a pilot should consider


delaying flight until these difficulties are satisfactorily


resolved.



Emotion


AIM (Full txt abt Emotion—this is it) 8-1-2


Certain emotionally upsetting events, including a


serious argument, death of a family member,


separation or divorce, loss of job, and financial


catastrophe, can render a pilot unable to fly an aircraft


safely. The emotions of anger, depression, and


anxiety from such events not only decrease alertness


but also may lead to taking risks (impair


decision-making and judgement) that border on


self-destruction. Any pilot who experiences an


emotionally upsetting event should not fly until


satisfactorily recovered from it.





PA.I.H.K1h


h. Dehydration and nutrition


(not in AIM)


(PHAK)




symptoms,


headache, fatigue, cramps, sleepiness, and dizziness.


fatigue progresses to dizziness, weakness, nausea,


tingling of hands and feet, abdominal cramps, and


extreme thirst.


Heatstroke





recognition,


causes,


Flying for long periods in hot summer temperatures or at high altitudes increases the susceptibility to dehydration because these conditions tend to increase the rate of water loss from the body.




effects, and


impair physical and mental function



corrective actions


To help prevent dehydration, drink two to four quarts of water every 24 hours. Since each person is physiologically different, this is only a guide. Most people are aware of the eight-glasses-a-day guide: If each glass of water is eight ounces, this equates to 64 ounces, which is two quarts. If this fluid is not replaced, fatigue progresses to dizziness, weakness, nausea, tingling of hands and feet, abdominal cramps, and extreme thirst.



The thirst mechanism can be shut off with just a small sip of water (push more down to prevent dehydration)



Other steps to prevent dehydration include:



Carrying a container in order to measure daily water intake.



Staying ahead—not relying on the thirst sensation as an alarm. If plain water is not preferred, add some sport drink flavoring to make it more acceptable.



Limiting daily intake of caffeine and alcohol (both are diuretics and stimulate increased production of urine).



Heatstroke is a condition caused by any inability of the body to control its temperature. Onset of this condition may be recognized by the symptoms of dehydration, but also has been known to be recognized only upon complete collapse.


17-14


To prevent these symptoms, it is recommended that an ample supply of water be carried and used at frequent intervals on any long flight, whether thirsty or not. The body normally absorbs water at a rate of 1.2 to 1.5 quarts per hour. Individuals should drink one quart per hour for severe heat stress conditions or one pint per hour for moderate stress conditions.



Nutrition (need Vit. A for night vision, blood sugar up for attention maintenance)


Lack of Nutrition is not addressed in the AIM, small paragraph in PHAK. But lack of nutrition will impair cause tiredness and impair motor skills and decision-making, judgement)



Hypoglycemia and Nutritional Deficiency


Missing or postponing meals can cause low blood sugar,


which impairs night flight performance. Low blood sugar


levels may result in stomach contractions, distraction,


breakdown in habit pattern, and a shortened attention span.


Likewise, an insufficient consumption of vitamin A may


also impair night vision. Foods high in vitamin A include


eggs, butter, cheese, liver, apricots, peaches, carrots, squash,


spinach, peas, and most types of greens. High quantities of


vitamin A do not increase night vision but a lack of vitamin


A certainly impairs it.





PA.I.H.K1i


i. Hypothermia


(not in AIM, not in PHAK)


Hypothermia is (excessive cold to cause impairment of mental/physical function)


It is often defined as any body temperature below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F).[8] With this method it is divided into degrees of severity based on the core temperature.[8]




symptoms,


(extreme cold body temp), shivering, fast heart-rate, fast breathing rate (mild case)


(moderate) confusion (mental function), motor skills impaired, lips, fingers, ears, toes become blue, (severe) motor functions severely impaired, difficultly walking and talking, inability to use hands, pulse rate, heart rate/breathing rate decrease, mental functions impaired (judgment/decision-making) decreased), organ shutdown, death.


recognition,


causes,


effects, and


impair motor/mental skills



corrective actions


need to warm up body


turn/pull knob for airplane heater / descend



PA.I.H.K1j


j. Optical illusions


Perceiving terrain/features not how they really are because of the way terrain is oriented or shaped. Many of these illusions are associated with perceiving as being too High/Low, too Far/Near than actually are. Many of these illusions occur during landing. Some illusions misperceive horizon location because of clouds or lights. Runway lighting systems can distort the beginning of the actual runway.





symptoms,


perceive terrain incorrectly


Examples



Runway Width Illusion (narrow/ fly too low, wide/fly too high)


Runway and Terrain Slopes Illusion (downslope/fly too high, upslope/fly too low)


Featureless Terrain Illusion (fly too low)


Water Refraction (water on window cause fly too low)


Haze(things seem farther away/higher so fly lower)


Atmospheric haze can create an illusion of being at a greater distance and height from the runway. As a result, the pilot has a tendency to be low on the approach.)/Clear (illusion of being too close or too low, things seem closer/lower so fly high)



Fog


Flying into fog can create an illusion of pitching up. Pilots who do not recognize this illusion often steepen the approach abruptly.






recognition,




causes,




effects, and




corrective actions



How To Prevent Landing Errors Due to Optical Illusions


To prevent these illusions and their potentially hazardous consequences, pilots can:


1. Anticipate the possibility of visual illusions during approaches to unfamiliar airports, particularly at night or in adverse weather conditions. Consult airport


diagrams and the Chart Supplement U.S. (formerly 4. Use Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) or


Airport/Facility Directory) for information on runway Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) systems


slope, terrain, and lighting. for a visual reference, or an electronic glideslope,


2. Make frequent reference to the altimeter, especially whenever they are available.


during all approaches, day and night. 5. Utilize the visual descent point (VDP) found on many


3. If possible, conduct an aerial visual inspection of


Non-precision instrument approach procedure charts.


unfamiliar airports before landing.


6.


Recognize that the chances of being involved in an approach accident increase when an emergency or other activity distracts from usual procedures.


7.


Maintain optimum proficiency in landing procedures.



In addition to the sensory illusions due to misleading inputs to the vestibular system, a pilot may also encounter various visual illusions during flight. Illusions rank among the most common factors cited as contributing to fatal aviation accidents.



Sloping cloud formations, an obscured horizon, a dark scene spread with ground lights and stars, and certain geometric patterns of ground light can create illusions of not being aligned correctly with the actual horizon. Various surface features and atmospheric conditions encountered in landing can create illusions of being on the wrong approach path. Landing errors due to these illusions can be prevented by anticipating them during approaches, inspecting unfamiliar airports before landing, using electronic glideslope or VASI systems when available, and maintaining proficiency in landing procedures.




AIM (good concise summary of illusions)


8-1-6 (April 2017)


3. Illusions Leading to Landing Errors.


(a) Various surface features and atmospheric


conditions encountered in landing can create illusions


of incorrect height above and distance from the


runway threshold. Landing errors from these


illusions can be prevented by anticipating them


during approaches, aerial visual inspection of


unfamiliar airports before landing, using electronic


glide slope or VASI systems when available, and


maintaining optimum proficiency in landing


procedures.


(b) Runway width illusion. A narrowerthan-


usual runway can create the illusion that the


aircraft is at a higher altitude than it actually is. The


pilot who does not recognize this illusion will fly a


lower approach, with the risk of striking objects along


the approach path or landing short. A wider-thanusual


runway can have the opposite effect, with the


risk of leveling out high and landing hard or


overshooting the runway.


(c) Runway and terrain slopes illusion. An


upsloping runway, upsloping terrain, or both, can


create the illusion that the aircraft is at a higher


altitude than it actually is. The pilot who does not


recognize this illusion will fly a lower approach. A


downsloping runway, downsloping approach terrain,


or both, can have the opposite effect.


(d) Featureless terrain illusion. An


absence of ground features, as when landing over


water, darkened areas, and terrain made featureless


by snow, can create the illusion that the aircraft is at


a higher altitude than it actually is. The pilot who does


not recognize this illusion will fly a lower approach.


(e) Atmospheric illusions. Rain on the


windscreen can create the illusion of greater height,


and atmospheric haze the illusion of being at a greater


distance from the runway. The pilot who does not


recognize these illusions will fly a lower approach.


Penetration of fog can create the illusion of pitching


up. The pilot who does not recognize this illusion will


steepen the approach, often quite abruptly.


(f) Ground lighting illusions. Lights along


a straight path, such as a road, and even lights on


moving trains can be mistaken for runway and


approach lights. Bright runway and approach lighting


systems, especially where few lights illuminate the


surrounding terrain, may create the illusion of less


distance to the runway. The pilot who does not


recognize this illusion will fly a higher approach.


Conversely, the pilot overflying terrain which has few


lights to provide height cues may make a lower than


normal approach.






PA.I.H.K1k


k. Dissolved nitrogen in the bloodstream after scuba dives


A pilot or passenger who intends to fly after


scuba diving should allow the body sufficient time to


rid itself of excess nitrogen absorbed during diving.


If not, decompression sickness due to evolved gas can


occur during exposure to low altitude and create a


serious inflight emergency.



symptoms,


recognition,


causes,


effects, and



corrective actions


The recommended waiting time before going


to flight altitudes of up to 8,000 feet is at least


12 hours after diving which has not required


controlled ascent (nondecompression stop diving),


and at least 24 hours after diving which has required


controlled ascent (decompression stop diving). The


waiting time before going to flight altitudes above


8,000 feet should be at least 24 hours after any


SCUBA dive. These recommended altitudes are


actual flight altitudes above mean sea level (AMSL)


and not pressurized cabin altitudes. This takes into


consideration the risk of decompression of the


aircraft during flight.


PA.I.H.K2


Regulations regarding use of alcohol and drugs.



91.17 (flt prohibited if .04 or had alchl <=8hrs bfr flt), 91.19 (prhbtd fm crryng illgl drgs)



AIM -8-1-2


The


CFRs prohibit pilots from performing crewmember


duties within 8 hours after drinking any alcoholic


beverage or while under the influence of alcohol.


However, due to the slow destruction of alcohol, a


pilot may still be under influence 8 hours after


drinking a moderate amount of alcohol. Therefore, an


excellent rule is to allow at least 12 to 24 hours


between “bottle and throttle,” depending on the


amount of alcoholic beverage consumed.





symptoms,


recognition,


causes,


effects, and


corrective actions




§91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (14 CFR 91.17)



(a) No person may act or attempt to act as a crewmember of a civil aircraft—



(1) Within 8 hours after the consumption of any alcoholic beverage;



(2) While under the influence of alcohol;



(3) While using any drug that affects the person's faculties in any way contrary to safety; or



(4) While having an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or greater in a blood or breath specimen. Alcohol concentration means grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood or grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath.



(b) Except in an emergency, no pilot of a civil aircraft may allow a person who appears to be intoxicated or who demonstrates by manner or physical indications that the individual is under the influence of drugs (except a medical patient under proper care) to be carried in that aircraft.



(c) A crewmember shall do the following:



(1) On request of a law enforcement officer, submit to a test to indicate the alcohol concentration in the blood or breath, when—



(i) The law enforcement officer is authorized under State or local law to conduct the test or to have the test conducted; and



(ii) The law enforcement officer is requesting submission to the test to investigate a suspected violation of State or local law governing the same or substantially similar conduct prohibited by paragraph (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(4) of this section.



(2) Whenever the FAA has a reasonable basis to believe that a person may have violated paragraph (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(4) of this section, on request of the FAA, that person must furnish to the FAA the results, or authorize any clinic, hospital, or doctor, or other person to release to the FAA, the results of each test taken within 4 hours after acting or attempting to act as a crewmember that indicates an alcohol concentration in the blood or breath specimen.



(d) Whenever the Administrator has a reasonable basis to believe that a person may have violated paragraph (a)(3) of this section, that person shall, upon request by the Administrator, furnish the Administrator, or authorize any clinic, hospital, doctor, or other person to release to the Administrator, the results of each test taken within 4 hours after acting or attempting to act as a crewmember that indicates the presence of any drugs in the body.



(e) Any test information obtained by the Administrator under paragraph (c) or (d) of this section may be evaluated in determining a person's qualifications for any airman certificate or possible violations of this chapter and may be used as evidence in any legal proceeding under section 602, 609, or 901 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958.



[Doc. No. 18334, 54 FR 34292, Aug. 18, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 91-291, June 21, 2006]




return arrow Back to Top



§91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. (14 CFR 91.19)



(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances as defined in Federal or State statutes are carried in the aircraft.



(b) Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to any carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances authorized by or under any Federal or State statute or by any Federal or State agency.




PA.I.H.K3


Effects of alcohol, drugs, and over-the-counter medications.


(they all impair your ability to conduct safe flight operations. The drugs cause impaired decision making, impaired judgement, impaired motor skills)



Alcohol also


renders a pilot much more susceptible to disorientation


and hypoxia.



Alcohol


symptoms, slurred speech, slow motor reactions


recognition,


causes,


effects, and (impaired motor skills and judgement)


corrective actions



Affect safety of flight as may impair judgment, motor skills, alertness and/or reaction time


impair judgment, memory, alertness, coordination,


vision, and the ability to make calculations.



Again--


due to the slow destruction of alcohol, a


pilot may still be under influence 8 hours after


drinking a moderate amount of alcohol. Therefore, an


excellent rule is to allow at least 12 to 24 hours


between “bottle and throttle,” depending on the


amount of alcoholic beverage consumed.


PA.I.H.K4


Aeronautical Decision-Making (ADM).



PPP



Perceive


Process


Perform



Risk Management


The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks encompassing:


PA.I.H.R1


Aeromedical and physiological issues.



See sections above for explanations.



PA.I.H.R2


Hazardous attitudes.



Risk Mgt Hdbk 8083-2 (only in definition section)


PHAK, 2-5



anti-authority, fix - Follow the rules. They are usually right


impulsivity, Not so fast. Think first


invulnerability, It could happen to me


macho, Taking chances is foolish


resignation I’m not helpless. I can make a difference


(you could apply follow the rules to all of these an still come out fine)




Macho


Antiauthority


Resignation


Impulsiveness




PA.I.H.R3


Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.



Follow checklists



PPP




Scanning for other Aircraft (AIM) (planes need to be <1sm away to be seen with off-center vision) 8-1-7



2. While the eyes can observe an approximate


200 degree arc of the horizon at one glance, only a


very small center area called the fovea, in the rear of


the eye, has the ability to send clear, sharply focused


messages to the brain. All other visual information


that is not processed directly through the fovea will be


of less detail. An aircraft at a distance of 7 miles


which appears in sharp focus within the foveal center


of vision would have to be as close as 7/10 of a mile


in order to be recognized if it were outside of foveal


vision. Because the eyes can focus only on this


narrow viewing area, effective scanning is accomplished


with a series of short, regularly spaced eye


movements that bring successive areas of the sky into


the central visual field. Each movement should not


exceed 10 degrees, and each area should be observed


for at least 1 second to enable detection.





AIM


8-1-9


f. Recognize High Hazard Areas.


1. Airways, especially near VORs, and Class B,


Class C, Class D, and Class E surface areas are places


where aircraft tend to cluster.


2. Remember, most collisions occur during days


when the weather is good. Being in a “radar


environment” still requires vigilance to avoid


collisions.



g. Cockpit Management. Studying maps,


checklists, and manuals before flight, with other


proper preflight planning; e.g., noting necessary


radio frequencies and organizing cockpit materials,


can reduce the amount of time required to look at


these items during flight, permitting more scan time.



h. Windshield Conditions. Dirty or bugsmeared


windshields can greatly reduce the ability of


pilots to see other aircraft. Keep a clean windshield.


i. Visibility Conditions. Smoke, haze, dust, rain,


and flying towards the sun can also greatly reduce the


ability to detect targets.


j. Visual Obstructions in the Cockpit.


1. Pilots need to move their heads to see around


blind spots caused by fixed aircraft structures, such as


door posts, wings, etc. It will be necessary at times to


maneuver the aircraft; e.g., lift a wing, to facilitate


seeing.


2. Pilots must ensure curtains and other cockpit


objects; e.g., maps on glare shield, are removed and


stowed during flight.


k. Lights On.


1. Day or night, use of exterior lights can greatly


increase the conspicuity of any aircraft.


2. Keep interior lights low at night.


l. ATC Support. ATC facilities often provide


radar traffic advisories on a workload-permitting


basis. Flight through Class C and Class D airspace


requires communication with ATC. Use this support


whenever possible or when required.



Skills


The applicant demonstrates the ability to:


PA.I.H.S1


Describe symptoms, recognition, causes, effects, and corrective actions for at least three of the conditions listed in K1a through K1k above.



See above explanations




symptoms,


recognition,


causes,


effects, and


corrective actions



Categories with clear answers:


Hypoxia


CO poisoning


Hyperventilation


Alcohol effect / Regs (91.17(.04, 8 hrs), 91.19 (illgl to crry cntrlld substances)







PA.I.H.S2


Perform self-assessment, including fitness for flight and personal minimums, for actual flight or a scenario given by the evaluator.





Personal Checklist. Aircraft accident statistics


show that pilots should be conducting preflight


checklists on themselves as well as their aircraft for


pilot impairment contributes to many more accidents


than failures of aircraft systems.




IMSAFE (one or more of these can impair performance)



Illness/Injury


Medication


Stress


Alcohol


Fatigue


Emotion





Per. Mins (vsby 7sm / CIG 070)







Task


I. Water and Seaplane Characteristics, Seaplane Bases, Maritime Rules, and Aids to Marine Navigation (ASES, AMES)


References


FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-23; AIM; USCG Navigation Rules, International-Inland; POH/AFM; Chart Supplements



Objective


To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with water and seaplane characteristics, seaplane bases, maritime rules,


and aids to marine navigation.


Knowledge


The applicant demonstrates understanding of:


PA.I.I.K1


The characteristics of a water surface as affected by features, such as:


PA.I.I.K1a


a. Size and location


PA.I.I.K1b


b. Protected and unprotected areas


PA.I.I.K1c


c. Surface wind


PA.I.I.K1d


d. Direction and strength of water current


PA.I.I.K1e


e. Floating and partially submerged debris


PA.I.I.K1f


f. Sandbars, islands, and shoals


PA.I.I.K1g


g. Vessel traffic and wakes


PA.I.I.K1h


h. Other features unique to the area


PA.I.I.K2


Float and hull construction, and their effect on seaplane performance.


PA.I.I.K3


Causes of porpoising and skipping, and the pilot action required to prevent or correct these occurrences.


PA.I.I.K4


How to locate and identify seaplane bases on charts or in directories.


PA.I.I.K5


Operating restrictions at various bases.


PA.I.I.K6


Right-of-way, steering, and sailing rules pertinent to seaplane operations.


PA.I.I.K7


Marine navigation aids, such as buoys, beacons, lights, and sound signals.


Risk Management


The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:


PA.I.I.R1


Local conditions.


PA.I.I.R2


Impact of marine traffic.


Skills


The applicant demonstrates the ability to:


PA.I.I.S1


Assess the water surface characteristics for the proposed flight.


PA.I.I.S2


Identify restrictions at local bases.


PA.I.I.S3


Identify marine navigation aids.


PA.I.I.S4


Perform correct right-of-way, steering, and sailing operations.





Task


A. Preflight Assessment


References


FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; POH/AFM; AC 00-6


Objective


To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with preparing for safe flight.


Knowledge


The applicant demonstrates understanding of:


PA.II.A.K1


Pilot self-assessment.



PAVE, IMSAFE



PA.II.A.K2


Determining that the aircraft to be used is appropriate, airworthy, and in a condition for safe flight.



Rvw maint. Records for A1TAPE,


find no 91.205 or 91.7 (Civil aircraft airworthiness) problems after going through POH pre-flight checklist




inspect the airplane logbooks or a summary of the airworthy status prior to flight to ensure that the airplane records of maintenance, alteration, and inspections are current and correct. [Figure 2-4] The following is required:


• Annual inspection within the preceding 12-calendar months (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, section 91.409(a))


• 100-hour inspection, if the aircraft is operated for hire (14 CFR part 91, section 91.409(b))


• Transponder certification within the preceding 24-calendar months (14 CFR part 91, section 91.413)


• Static system and encoder certification, within the preceding 24-calendar months, required for instrument flight rules (IFR) flight in controlled airspace (14 CFR part 91, section 91.411)


• 30-day VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) equipment check required for IFR flight (14 CFR part 91, section 91.171)


• Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) inspection within the last 12 months (14 CFR part 91, section 91.207(d))


• ELT battery due (14 CFR part 91, section 91.207(c))


• Current status of life limited parts per Type Certificate Data Sheets (TCDS) (14 CFR part 91, section 91.417)


• Status, compliance, logbook entries for airworthiness directives (ADs) (14 CFR part 91, section 91.417(a)(2)(v))


• Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Form 337, Major Repair or Alteration (14 CFR part 91, section 91.417)


• Inoperative equipment (14 CFR part 91, section 91.213)



A review determines if the required maintenance and inspections have been performed on the airplane. Any discrepancies must be addressed prior to flight. Once the pilot has determined that the airplane’s logbooks provide factual assurance that the aircraft meets its airworthy requirements, it is appropriate to visually inspect the airplane.



AFH, 2-3


PA.II.A.K3


Aircraft preflight inspection including:


PA.II.A.K3a


a. Which items must be inspected




Aircraft specific POH specifies items required for inspection;



172R pre-flight POH checklist:



CHECKLIST PROCEDURES


PREFLIGHT INSPECTION


1 CABIN


1. Pitot Tube Cover -- REMOVE. Check for pitot blockage.


2. Pilot's Operating Handbook -- AVAILABLE IN THE AIRPLANE.


3. Airplane Weight and Balance -- CHECKED.


4. Parking Brake -- SET.


5. Control Wheel Lock -- REMOVE.


6. Ignition Switch -- OFF.


7. Avionics Master Switch -- OFF.


WHEN TURNING ON THE MASTER SWITCH,


USING AN EXTERNAL POWER SOURCE, OR


PULLING THE PROPELLER THROUGH BY HAND,


TREAT THE PROPELLER AS IF THE IGNITION


SWITCH WERE ON. DO NOT STAND, NOR


ALLOW ANYONE ELSE TO STAND, WITHIN THE


ARC OF THE PROPELLER, SINCE A LOOSE OR


BROKEN WIRE OR A COMPONENT


MALFUNCTION COULD CAUSE THE PROPELLER


TO ROTATE.


8. Master Switch -- ON.


9. Fuel Quantity Indicators -- CHECK QUANTITY and ENSURE


LOW FUEL ANNUNCIATORS (L LOW FUEL R) ARE


EXTINGUISHED.


10. Avionics Master Switch -- ON.


11. Avionics Cooling Fan -- CHECK AUDIBLY FOR OPERATION.


12. Avionics Master Switch -- OFF.


13. Static Pressure Alternate Source Valve -- OFF.


14. Annunciator Panel Switch -- PLACE AND HOLD IN TST


POSITION and ensure all annunciators illuminate.


Revision 7 4-7


SECTION 4 CESSNA


NORMAL PROCEDURES MODEL 172R


15. Annunciator Panel Test Switch -- RELEASE. Check that


appropriate annunciators remain on.


NOTE


When Master Switch is turned ON, some annunciators will


flash for approximately 10 seconds before illuminating


steadily. When panel TST switch is toggled up and held in


position, all remaining lights will flash until the switch is


released.


16. Fuel Selector Valve -- BOTH.


17. Fuel Shutoff Valve -- ON (Push Full In).


18. Flaps -- EXTEND.


19. Pitot Heat -- ON. (Carefully check that pitot tube is warm to the


touch within 30 seconds.)


20. Pitot Heat -- OFF.


21. Master Switch -- OFF.


22. Elevator Trim -- SET for takeoff.


23. Baggage Door -- CHECK, lock with key.


24. Autopilot Static Source Opening (if installed) -- CHECK for


blockage.


2 EMPENNAGE


1. Rudder Gust Lock (if installed) -- REMOVE.


2. Tail Tie-Down -- DISCONNECT.


3. Control Surfaces -- CHECK freedom of movement and


security.


4. Trim Tab -- CHECK security.


5. Antennas -- CHECK for security of attachment and general


condition.


3 RIGHT WING Trailing Edge


1. Aileron -- CHECK freedom of movement and security.


2. Flap -- CHECK for security and condition.


4 RIGHT WING


1. Wing Tie-Down -- DISCONNECT.


4-8 Revision 7


CESSNA SECTION 4


MODEL 172R NORMAL PROCEDURES


2. Main Wheel Tire -- CHECK for proper inflation and general


condition (weather checks, tread depth and wear, etc...).


3. Fuel Tank Sump Quick Drain Valves -- DRAIN at least a


cupful of fuel (using sampler cup) from each sump location to


check for water, sediment, and proper fuel grade before each


flight and after each refueling. If water is observed, take


further samples until clear and then gently rock wings and


lower tail to the ground to move any additional contaminants


to the sampling points. Take repeated samples from all fuel


drain points until all contamination has been removed. If


contaminants are still present, refer to WARNING below and


do not fly airplane.


IF, AFTER REPEATED SAMPLING, EVIDENCE OF


CONTAMINATION STILL EXISTS, THE AIRPLANE


SHOULD NOT BE FLOWN. TANKS SHOULD BE


DRAINED AND SYSTEM PURGED BY QUALIFIED


MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL. ALL EVIDENCE OF


CONTAMINATION MUST BE REMOVED BEFORE


FURTHER FLIGHT.


4. Fuel Quantity -- CHECK VISUALLY for desired level.


5. Fuel Filler Cap -- SECURE and VENT UNOBSTRUCTED.


5 NOSE


1. Fuel Strainer Quick Drain Valve (Located on bottom of


fuselage) -- DRAIN at least a cupful of fuel (using sampler


cup) from valve to check for water, sediment, and proper fuel


grade before each flight and after each refueling. If water is


observed, take further samples until clear and then gently rock


wings and lower tail to the ground to move any additional


contaminants to the s