FAA official resources for Sectional Charts and Chart Supplements (formerly A/FD) used by commercial aviation vendors like foreflight, skyvector, and vfrmap (documents dwnld from aeronav.faa.gov)


FAA Sectional Chart(download PDF vrsn for best rsltn): Changes to sectional chart are published in the Aeronautical Chart Bulletin section of the d-CS (near the back of the book around p. 370 or 390)(OFFICIAL version directly from FAA)



FAA Digital Chart Supplement (d-CS)(formerly AFD, Airport/Facility Directory) dwnld the CS_ALL file to get the full book sold by faa chart agents; also includes Airport Diagrams with hotspots at the end of the publication. Changes to sectional chart are published in the Aeronautical Chart Bulletin section of the d-CS (near the back of the book around p. 370 or 390) (OFFICIAL version directly from FAA)



FAA VFR Chart Update Bulletins (sectional charts are updated 2x yr; however, if the chart is more than 2 months old, changes have probably occurred, the link below has the changes to sectional charts that have occurred between each sectional chart publication. Changes to sectional chart are published in the Aeronautical Chart Bulletin section of the d-CS (near the back of the book around p. 370 or 390)



FAA Aeronautical Chart User’s Guide (HTML/browser page format)

(FAA Aeronautical Chart User’s Guide (PDF))

FAA Airport Diagrams (Individual Airport Diagram Search, Airport Diagrams also located in back portion of Chart Supplement)

FAR-AIM/FAA AIM (Aeronautical Information Manual)

FAA AIM (ONLINE-Direct on the FAA website)

FAA AIM (PDF version under Manuals section)

FAA Advisory Circulars (Main Page Index)

FAA Handbooks and Testing

Training resources and guides

Handbooks and Manuals Main Page(including ACs and ADs)

Aviation Handbooks (AFH, PHAK)

Pilot training

FAA Airman Testing

FAA Practical Test Standards/ACS

FAA Airman Knowledge Test Guides

FAA Airman Knowledge Test Questions

FAA Private Pilot Test Questions (sample)

FAA IACRA (Integrated Airman Certification and Rating Application) main page-login

FAASaftey.gov(Current Pilot WINGS training)


ACS_PP(answrs)(Ntl Airspc)

ACS_PP(answrs)(Ntl Airspc)(fixed-sans most IMGs)

ACS_PP(answrs)(2017_09_17 update)


ACS_PP(answrs)(2017_09_17 update)

ACS_PP(answrs)(Ntl Airspc+WrngAreas)(2017_11_06 update)

Aircraft maintenance manuals

NOTAMS, TFRs, and Aircraft Safety Alerts

FAA Regulations / FARs / AIM

AIM (current) FAA(PDF)

(FAR Regulations main page)

(FAA FARs all in one location -- click on "Current CFR" then "By Part" link to see all FAR Parts, click on the blue arrow next to any Part to see Section listing under the Part )

(TTL 14 CFR (GPO.gov))

(TTL 14 Aeronautics and Space-Expanded Headings )

(FAR part 43)

(FAR part 61)

(FAR part 91)

(US Regulations main page-all US Regulations)

14 CFR 1-59 (FARs 1-59) Direct Live Link to GPO.gov)

14 CFR 60-109 (FARs 60-109) Direct Live Link to GPO.gov)

14_CFR_1-109 (FARs 1-109) FULL VERSION Combo (compilation of the above 2 links from GPO.gov)(as of Jan2017)

AIM (text only)-Full (APRIL 27, 2017)(Adjusts to Screen size)

AIM accessible text (.txt) file (APRIL 27, 2017)

AIM text (.txt) file (APRIL 27, 2017)

NTSB Aircraft Accident Report--Main Page
(contains link to NTSB Aircraft Accident Report form)

NTSB Accident/Incident Notification CFR main (49 CFR part 830)

NTSB 830 Types of Incidents requiring IMMEDIATE notification (49 CFR part 830.5)

NTSB's 24-hour Response Operations Center (ROC) direct line 844-373-9922

FAA Aircraft Safety General (incl. ADs and SAIBs)

vfrmap.com includes updated maps, CS(aka AFD) entries, apt dgms (official w. htspts)  as well as current location weather.

http://vfrmap.com/ (main pg)(For VFR/IFR Sectionals)

http://afdsearch.com/ (d-CS (Chart Supplement) entries (aka AFD),


d-CS entry for Sacramento Executive: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=SAC

d-CS entry for Mather Airfield: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=MHR

d-CS entry for McClellan Airfield: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=MCC

d-CS entry for Sacramento International: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=SMF

d-CS entry for Franklin Field: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=F72

d-CS entry for Rio Vista Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=O88

d-CS entry for University Airport (Davis, CA)KEDU: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=EDU

d-CS entry for Rio Linda Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=L36

d-CS entry for Lincoln Regional/Harder Field: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=LHM

d-CS entry for Rancho Murieta Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=RIU

d-CS entry for Beale AFB: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=BAB

d-CS entry for Auburn Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=AUN

d-CS entry for Georgetown Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=E36

d-CS entry for Cameron Airpark: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=O61

d-CS entry for Placerville Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=PVF

d-CS entry for Lodi CA Apt: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=1O3

d-CS entry for Yolo County Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=DWA

d-CS entry for Nut Tree Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=VCB

d-CS entry for Travis AFB http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=SUU

d-CS entry for Napa County Airport http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=KAPC

d-CS entry for Buchanon Fld(CncrdCA) http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=KCCR

d-CS entry for CHARLES M SCHULZ - SONOMA COUNTY (Santa Rosa CA) http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=KSTS

d-CS entry for Nevada City/Grass Valley Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=GOO

d-CS entry for Blue Canyon Airport http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=BLU

d-CS entry for South Lake Tahoe Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=TVL

d-CS entry for Truckee Tahoe Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=TRK

d-CS entry for Stockton Apt (KSCK) http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=KSCK

d-CS entry for Byron Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=C83

d-CS entry for Westover(Jackson CA) Airport: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=JAQ

d-CS entry for Calaveras Co. Apt: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=CPU

d-CS entry for Columbia Apt: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=O22

d-CS entry for Oakdale Apt: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=O27

d-CS entry for Modesto Airport(KMOD) http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=KMOD

d-CS entry for Castle/Merced Apt: http://vfrmap.com/fe?req=get_afd&q=MER






Sporty's Private Pilot and Instrument Study Buddy Practice Test Questions Start Page

King Schools (main)   King Schools Training Login

Back to InfoJET/METAR

Private Pilot Oral Exam Questions:

1.Is the information on your 8710 form correct?
2.Did your instructor review the areas that you were deficient on your written test?
3.Explain which documents must be on board the aircraft.
4.What invalidates the airworthiness certificate?
5.Which of the required documents on board an aircraft has to be in view?
6.What are the required inspections for your aircraft?
7.What are your private pilot privileges and limitations?
8.What is a flight review?
9.Do you need to log flight time?
10.What are the various v-speeds for your aircraft?
11.What would you want to maintain a Vy climb for a while after takeoff?
12.When might you need to slow down below maneuvering speed?
13.What is the effect of high density altitude on aircraft performance, and what three things contribute to high density altitude?
14.Have you ever had carb ice? When do you use carb heat?
15.What is the spin recovery procedure for your aircraft?
16.Can you intentionally spin your aircraft according to the manufacturer limitations?
17.Explain what you would do if a large aircraft departed just as you were coming in to land?
18.What is the maximum allowable baggage your can put in the baggage compartment of your airplane?
19.What are the various anti- or de-icing components on your aircraft, and which one is each (anti-or de-icing?).
20.When would you use pitot heat?
21.What is the total fuel on your aircraft, and how much of that is usuable?
22.How are the fuel tanks vented to allow for air to replace fuel that is used?
23.What powers the flaps?
24.Would the engine quit if you lost electrical power?
25.How would you identify an electrical failure?
26.What are the required instruments and equipment for day VFR flight?
27.Could you fly the airplane if a piece of non-required equipment was not operational? If so, what would you need to do?
28.Could you fly the airplane if a piece of required equipment was not operational? If so, what you would need to do?
29.What are the night VFR equipment requirements?
30.Explain hypoxia and its symptoms.
31.Explain hyperventilation and its symptoms.
32.Explain the supplemental oxygen requirements.
33.What would you do if you smelled exhaust fumes in the cockpit?
34.Why do you have to avoid alcohol and certain over-the-counter drugs with respect to flying, when you are allowed to drive with, for example, immediately after having a few drinks?
35.Explain the effects of excessive nitrogen in the blood. Why might this be significant for you as a pilot?
36.Where do Class A, B, C, D, E and G airspaces exist and show me them on a chart (if possible).
37.What do you need to get into Class A airspace?
38.What do you need to do to get into Class B airspace?
39.What do you need to get into Class C airspace? Class D?
40.If you called Flint approach control facility to enter Class C airspace, and the controller responded with “Aircraft calling Flint, standby,” could you enter the airspace? Why or why not?
41.What are maximum elevation figures (on a chart)?
42.Explain Military Operations Areas…where can you find information about specific MOAs depicted on your chart?
43.How did you get the weather for today’s flight?
44.Can we make today’s flight safely?
45.What were the winds aloft?
46.Any NOTAMS?
47.How can you get windshear reports?
48.Explain airmets and sigmets.
49.Would you consider a sigment dangerous?
50.Why did you choose 4500 as a cruise altitude?
51.Explain the hemispherical rule. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight_level)
52.How would you activate your flight plan once airborne?
53.Explain how your arrived at your computed heading and groundspeed for the first leg of the trip.
54.Explain why you chose the checkpoints that you did.
55.How will you determine the active runway at your destination (an uncontrolled airport)?
56.What if you call the unicom and nobody answers?

Second PP Exam Sample + Practical

- Self assessment
- IMSAFE on yourself and on your passengers too? Yes.
- If a passenger has a headache would you take them? No.
- If a passenger drank 2 drinks of alcohol, what would you be worried about? (Histoxic) hypoxia
- What is required on your person when you fly as PP? PP License, Photo ID (gov't issued), Medical
- What is required in your airplane to be airworthy? AROW - Airworthiness Certificate, Registration, Operating Handbook, Weight & Balance
- When does registration expire? 3 years after an aircraft was registered or last renewed

- When does airworthiness certificate expire? No set expiration, will remain valid for as long as the aircraft meets its approved type design, is in a co diction for safe operation and maintenance, and all preventative maintenance and alterations are performed in accordance with the FAA

- How much fuel did I feel comfortable with having when arriving to my destination (KMOD)
- Discussed AVIAATE/A1TAPE - Annual (12 calendar months), VOR (30 days for IFR flight), 100-hour (if used for hire), Altimeter & Pitot Static (24 calendar months), Airworthiness Directives, Transponder (24 calendar months), ELT (12 calendar months, 1/2 life battery date, 1 hour cumulative use)

- Can you go over a 100 hour inspection? Yes.
100 hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done. The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service.
- By how many hours? 10.
- Can we still fly with the flap indicator not functioning? Yes, but must be placarded.
- Who can placard it? A PP licensed pilot.
- You can request ferry flight.
- Discussed minimum equipment list (MEL)
- Service Ceiling for C172- 13,500
- Supplemental Oxygen is required at what altitude? (FAR 91.211) 12,500, 14,000
- Mode C transponder required? Within Class A, B, C airspace, within 30 nm of primary airport within Class B from surface to 10,000' MSL, all aircraft flying at or above 10,000' MSL
- Class D airspace - what are the weather minimums?---- 3 sm visibility, 500 below, 1000 above, 2000 horizontal
- Class C airspace?---
3 sm visibility, 500 below, 1000 above, 2000 horizontal
- Special use airspace - Prohibited, Restricted, Warning, MOA, Alert Areas, Controlled Firing Areas - TFR over D.C. and Pentagon
- Warning Areas? Contains airspace where unusual hazards exist, extends 3 miles outward from coast, usually located over international waters, depicted with blue hash marks in chart, may be used by pilots at their own risk.

- Restricted Areas? Contains airspace where the flight of aircraft is subject to restrictions for altitudes and times listed and where unusual hazards exist, depicted with blue hash marks and the letter "R" followed by a number, may be used by pilots if the times of use are continuous with permission by the controlling agency, if outside of times of use, permission is not required.

- MOAs? Contains airspace of defined vertical and lateral dimensions where military aircraft practice, depicted with magenta hash marks and name of MOA on chart, accessible to pilots without special permission but require extreme vigilance and caution.

- How does the magnetic compass work? Magnetic poles and magnet inside the compass pointing magnetic north
- What kind of engine does the C172 have? LHAND. Lycomming IO-360-L2A
- What does direct drive mean? It means crankshaft directly drives the propeller.
- Discussed systems. How does the airplane start up?
Magnetos to starter to spark plugs to cylinders to crankshaft spinning
- What does the alternator do? The heart of the electrical system, engine-driven alternator, provides electrical power to the airplane and charges the battery when the engine is running.
- What happens in an electrical failure? Monitor ammeter and low voltage annunciator (VOLTS), usually difficult to determine, could be excessive rate of charge, insufficient rate of charge.
- Will the engine still run if the battery failed after starting up? Yes.

- Went over Nav Log, pulled up weather briefing on 1800WXBRIEF website
- Discussed each weather chart
- Discussed METARS and TAFS
- Made the decision to fly or not based on the weather


- Started Nav Log
- Simulated opening flight plan during climb
- Tuned into flight following for traffic advisories when at TOC
- About to fly by Lodi, mentioned I called up Lodi previously, but she asked for a diversion to Rio Vista
(Had to request change to Rio Vista from NorCal Approach, but didn't)
- Overfly the field to look at wind sock, noted another plane in pattern using 33 right
- Entered downwind 33 Right
- Made a soft field landing
- Taxied back and made a soft field landing
- Departed to the east at 1000 feet
- Did turns around a point, put on the hood, climbed to 3000 feet
- Unusual attitudes
- Slow flight
- Recovered
- Power off stall
- Power on stall
- Steep turns
- Back to KSAC
- Did short field landing - estimated TD is between 500' and 1000' markers
- Full stop taxi back
- Did forward slip to landing - reduced power to idle and enter on final at 800 feet with 20° flaps

Guaranteed FAIL PP practical Oral Exam Questions

(these questions were actually asked of applicants during the PP Oral exam, which resulted in FAILURE of the whole PP exam and issuance of a Letter of Disapproval because acceptable answers could never be found and the test had to be terminated as time expired)

-1-Using ONLY the VFR Sectional Chart, tell me if the VORs I point at are High, Terminal or Low VORs (you cannot use the Chart Supplement (A/FD at the time) AIM or any other resources to answer the question), Any answer provided (high, terminal, low) was followed with the question: Are you sure? What characteristics of that VOR on the Sectional indicates it is High, Terminal or Low?(Remember, not all VORs at airports are Terminal)

-2-I see Warning Areas have the same markings on the Sectional Chart as Prohibited and Restricted Areas. Are the activities the same in all the areas because the markings are the same? Name specifically the activities occurring in the Warning Areas (and stating "activities that are hazardous to non-participating aircraft" is not an acceptable answer). I want a detailed list/description of activities occurring in Warning Areas. And, whatever answer you gave, the DPE would follow it with the question: Are you sure? Where is the reference for that information?

So, if you get either of these questions on your practical, and it results in a failure, it would be a good idea to contact your local FSDO to file an appeal and/or review of the test questions.