( ProWeather for AVPROs )

METAR/TAF(Classic format for Pros)(METAR/TAF Results displayed directly below)
(enter CONUS apts starting with a K(eg. KMCC), enter Alaska/Hawaii apts starting with a P(eg. PANC))

Get APT ( )

UTC/Zulu time


METARs (past 60 minutes)

( RE-Check current METAR/TAF )

METAR Numeric Codes (usually listed after RMK)

1xxxxx___6-hr maximum temp(2nd digit=0 is positive, 1 is negative)(eg. 10405 = +40.5 degrees Celsius)

2xxxxx___6-hr minimum temp (eg. 21337 = -33.7 degrees Celsius)

4/xxx___Total snow depth in inches (eg. 4/020 = snow depth of 20 inches on ground)

4xxxxxxxx___24-hr maximum/minimum temperatures, 2nd and sixth digits equal 0 for positive and 1 for negative (eg. 401551095 = 24-hr maximum temp of +15.5 degrees Celsius and a 24-hr minimum temp of -9.5 degrees Celsius)

5xxxx___3 hour pressure tendency. The second digit gives the tendency/trend: 0–3 is rising, 4 is steady and 5–8 is falling , the last 3 digits give the pressure change in tenths of a millibar in the last 3 hours. (eg 50009 indicates a rising pressure tendency/trend of 0.9 millibars.)

6xxxx___3 or 6 hour precipitation amount. The last 4 digits are the inches of rain in hundredths. (eg. 60200 = 2 inches of rain)

7xxxx___24-hour precipitation amount. The last 4 digits are the inches of rain in hundredths. (eg. 70500 = 5 inches of rain)

8/xxx___Cloud cover using WMO code. Three digit code follows the /. Lower numbers are for clearer skies, high numbers are for overcast. (I have not seen this in the NorCal airport METARs yet).

98xxx___Duration of sunshine in minutes. The last three digits after 98 are minutes. (eg. 98120 = 120 minutes of sunshine)

931xxx___Snowfall in the last 6-hours. The last three digits display snowfall in inches and tenths. (eg. 931515 = 51.5 inches of snowfall)

933xxx___Liquid water equivalent of the snow (SWE). The last three digits display liquid water equivalent of snow in inches and tenths (eg. 933055 = 5.5 inches of liquid water in snow)

Other METAR codes
SLP155 = current barometric pressure extrapolated to sea level (SLP155 equals 1015.5 hPa)(Standard Pressure equals SLP133 or 1013.25(1013.3 hPa/millibars)

Pxxxx = liquid-equivalent precipitation accumulated during the last hour to hundredths of inches (P0050 = .5 inch of rain in the past hour)

Txxxxxxxx is the Hourly Temperature and Dew point. The first 4 digits are temperature. The second 4 digits are Dew Point. The first digit of each group is either 0 for above zero Celsius or 1 for below zero Celsius. (eq. T00251015 = Temp +2.5C, Dew Pt -1.5C)


TORNADIC ACTIVITY: Augmented; report should include TORNADO, FUNNEL CLOUD, or WATERSPOUT, time begin/end, location, movement; e.g., TORNADO B25 N MOV E.

TYPE OF AUTOMATED STATION: AO2; automated station with precipitation discriminator.

PEAK WIND: PK WND dddff(f)/(hh)mm; direction in tens of degrees, speed in whole knots, and time.
PK WND 20032/25

WSHFT 1715

TOWER OR SURFACE VISIBILITY: TWR VIS vvvvv: visibility reported by tower personnel, e.g., TWR VIS 2; SFC VIS vvvvv: visibility reported by ASOS, e.g., SFC VIS 2.

VARIABLE PREVAILING VISIBILITY: VIS vnvnvnvnvnVvxvxvxvxvx; reported if prevailing visibility is < 3 miles and variable.
VIS 3/4V1 1/2

VISIBILITY AT SECOND LOCATION: VIS vvvvv [LOC]; reported if different than the reported prevailing visibility in body of report.
VIS 3/4 RWY11

LIGHTNING: [FREQ] LTG [LOC]; when detected the frequency and location is reported, e.g., FRQ LTG NE.


VIRGA: Augmented; precipitation not reaching the ground, e.g., VIRGA.

VARIABLE CEILING HEIGHT: CIG hnhnhnVhxhxhx; reported if ceiling in body of report is < 3000 feet and variable.
CIG 013V017

CEILING HEIGHT AT SECOND LOCATION: CIG hhh [LOC]; Ceiling height reported if secondary ceilometer site is different than the ceiling height in the body of the report.
CIG 017 RWY11

SENSOR STATUS INDICATORS: RVRNO: RVR missing; PWINO: precipitation identifier information not available; PNO: precipitation amount not available; FZRANO: freezing rain information not available; TSNO: thunderstorm information not available; VISNO [LOC]: visibility at secondary location not available, e.g., VISNO RWY06; CHINO [LOC]: (cloud-height-indicator) sky condition at secondary location not available, e.g., CHINO RWY06.

MAINTENANCE CHECK INDICATOR: Maintenance needed on the system.

If an element or phenomena does not occur, is missing, or cannot be observed, the corresponding group and space are omitted (body and/or remarks) from that particular report, except for Sea-Level Pressure (SLPppp). SLPNO shall be reported in a METAR when the SLP is not available.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE - NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION - National Weather Service - Observing Systems Branch, 1325 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910

NWS/NOAA (METAR/TAF results displayed on NWS page)
(button press takes you to METAR results)

(button press takes you to

Aviation (Aviation Weather Center)(NWS/NOAA)-main page

METARs / TAFs ( )


TAF decoder (NWS) ( Wind[22020G35KT] - Visibility[3SM,P6SM] - Weather[RA,FG,HZ,BR,TS] - Sky Condition[SKC,CLR,BKN030] - Optional Data (Wind Shear)[WS015/22055KT]--at 1500ft AGL from 220true at 55knots)
[ For aviation purposes, the ceiling is the lowest broken or overcast layer or vertical visibility into a complete obscuration. ]

METAR decode key (


TAF Card (

METAR Codes (Wikipedia)

TAF/METAR Ref card from (NOTE: Digital Wind format (TAF/METAR, Winds Aloft) wind direction is TRUE NORTH, Audio wind Format (ASOS/AWOS/ATIS/ATC Apt Twr wind direction from Ground to Air radio) wind direction is MAGNETIC NORTH)(AIM: Wind direction broadcast over FAA radios is in reference to magnetic north. Ref: AIM AWOS/AWSS/ASOS Meteorology section, p. 7-1-28)

METAR magnetic wind direction calculation (

NWS AvnWthr Area Forecasts(Deactivated for CONUS, Area Forecasts still avlbl for Alaska, Hawaii, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean areas)

NWS AvnWthr Aviation Forecast Discussions (AFD)

NWS AWC Graphical Forecasts for Aviation (NEW)(GFA is meant to replace the Area Forecast)

NOAA Weather Prediction Center

NWS AWC Aviation Forecasts (GFA static images)

Ceiling & Visibility (CIG & VSBY) NWS AWC (current)

Ceiling & Visibility (ZOA-Central CA)

Ceiling Forecast (CONUS) NOAA/NWS

Ceiling/Vsby/Temp forecasts NWS/NOAA



FAA NOTAM PilotWeb Home page

FAA NOTAM Contractions(FAA Official Pub)

FAA TFR MAP(FAA Direct Link)(Use to find active TFRs)(or use Skyvector)

FAA Special Use Airspace (SUA) MAP (shows ACTIVE SUA areas including TFRs)

WINDs / TEMPs Aloft (NWS/
( Wind direction is from true north. No winds are forecast within 1,500 feet of station elevation. Also, no temperatures are forecast for the 3,000 foot level or for any level within 2,500 feet of station elevation. )

NWS AvnWthr WindsTempsAloft(MAP)_US

NWS AvnWthr WindsTempsAloft(TEXT)_WstnUS(SFO)

Graphical Wind Forecast(select Wind Speed & Direction drop-down) ( be shutdown soon)

Graphical Forecast (NEW)( (wind direction for Sacramento region)




PIREPs/AIREPS(Aircraft Rpts)

AIRMET (Sierra(IFR MtnObscn), Tango(Trb),Zulu(Icg)) txt, west cst





NOAA PROG CHTs (when isobars are closer together, wind speed is greater. High and Low Pressure wind pattens: winds tend to spiral in toward a surface low pressure center in a counterclockwise fashion, and spiral around a high pressure cell in a clockwise outflow pattern.)

See these resources to determine wind direction around iso(equal pressure)bars (This reference indicates winds tend to parallel isobars), Here is a reference from the National Weather Service describing the Origin of Wind. Just from casual observation, winds sometimes seem to flow perpendicular to isobars.

NWS/NOAA Satellite

Density Altitude / Freezing Levels / Air Quality

NWS AvnWthr DENSITY ALTITUDE Map (select Temp.Difference from the Plot menu)(Colored map areas display additional altitude to add to surface Altitude to get DENSITY ALTITUDE)(for example, if you are at Blue Canyon(KBLU)(elev. 5284 MSL) and the map area over KBLU is red(+3000ft), KBLU's Density Altitude is 8284 (5284+3000)

NWS AVNWTHR FRZNG LVL LOWEST (Multi-Color US full map)(WHITE Areas = SURFACE temperatures BELOW FREEZING.)(title = Current Freezing Level Forecast )( Check current Freezing Level by setting Time to 0hr, check Forecast Freezing Level up to 18 hrs in the future by setting Time to 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 hrs)  NWS Freezing Info page (ADDS Icing Help)

NWS AVNWTHR FRZNG LVL FRCST ICING at selected Altitude(Blue Shaded Map)_(SLD=Super-cooled Large Drop)(max=worst possible icing conditions at ANY altitude for a spc time period)


NOAA NWS US Air Quality Forecast Map

NOAA NWS NRN CA Air Quality Forecast Map

GPS status (NOAA,

National Airspace System Status (Press GPS Status in the left menu under NAS Status)

NWS NOAA Planetary K-index (if > 4, GPS system accuracy may be reduced)

NOAA/NWS Rain Totals

NorCal Rain Totals NOAA/NWS

National Weather Service (General Weather Public sites)

NWS Public Weather site (

NWS Digital Forecast (general)

NWS Public Weather Site (ClicMap)--Current Conditions

NWS Public Weather Site (Radar Locations)-show areas of T-Storms

NWS weather.gov_Sacramento Area Weather (Carmichael, CA)

NWS Sacramento Executive Apt (KSAC) Cndtns and Forecast

NWS Half Moon Bay Airport (KHAF) Current Conditions and Forecast

NWS San Francisco Intl Apt (KSFO) Current Conditions and Forecast

Blue Canyon (KBLU)

Sacramento, CA frcst temp range (7-day)

7-day text forecast NWS

NWS basic information

METAR update history (last 5 updates)






FlightAware KSMF

ADS-B Track Map

ATC Radar View(15 mins vw time)

ATC Radar View (CA KSAC - KTVL)(15 mins vw time)



STD Atmosphere (TEMP/PRESSURE at Sea Level) = 15C / 29.92 in Hg (1013.25 hPa)

TEMP lapse rate = 2C/1000ft (for every 1000 ft increase in altitude, temperature decreases 2 degrees Celsius.)

PRESSURE lapse rate = 1 in/1000ft (for every 1000 ft increase in altitude, pressure decreases 1 in of Hg (Mercury).)

Pressure Altitude is altitude displayed by Altimeter when set to standard pressure of 29.92 in Hg (the pressure set for the International Standard Atmosphere).

Density Altitude Described (FAA link)

FAA OFFICIAL REFERENCE (Sectionals, Chart Supplements, AIM, Testing)

FlightAware KSMF

ADS-B Track Map

ATC Radar View(15 mins vw time)

ATC Radar View (CA KSAC - KTVL)(15 mins vw time)



Alt. NWS TAF site:

METAR Visual Warning Box(NWS AvnWthr)(NEW)

TAF Visual Warning Box (Hr by Hr Frcst)(NWS AvnWthr)(NEW)

APT Data (Rwys) FAA Official Data





FAA Rio Vista(O88)

FAA Franklin(F72)

FAA University(Davis) KEDU

FLT Log Daily Details + EMAIL (FastEntry)

Cessna 172R/172S--POHs, Performance Charts and Weight/Balance

172R-POH_160hp (Lycoming IO-360-L2A)

172S-POH_180hp (Lycoming IO-360-L2A)

172R-POH Charts HERE
172R(160hp)-Lycoming IO-360-L2A-- PERFCharts(TO / LDG Dist)(172R POH Performance Charts for your X-County HERE)

WT/BAL CALC-172R-160hp (Lycoming IO-360-L2A)

WT/BAL CALC-172S-180hp (Lycoming IO-360-L2A)


172 scenario questions (c)NorCal Flight Center

172R-180hp conversion overview (AirPlains)

172_180hp(conversion from 160hp)_performance charts

172R(160hp), 172R(180hp), 172S_Performance & Training Information ATP

Embry-Riddle_Reference Library

172 ADs (Airframe, Engine, Propeller, Appliances)

Cessna 172 general ADs

Cessna 172R ADs

Cessna 172R engine ADs (for Lycoming IO-360-L2A engine only) ADs

Cessna 172R propeller ADs (McCauley Propeller 75 inch)

Cessna 172R appliances (example search for Garmin GPS, transponder)

FAA AD search (version 2-newer)

FAA AD search (version 1)

NavLog PDF

NavLog Calc WCA

IAS, TAS, Density Altitude Calcs

Hdg, GS, WCA direct calc

Hdg, GS, WCA direct calc (HTML)

E6B ArcCalc Full Options (Chrome only)

TAS from IAS calculator (for climb)

PRE-FLT CHEC (Mandatory) ( FAR 91.103 )

OnField Aircraft Ground Checklist(button press)

E6B online calcs-basic view-AviationCalcs

GA Weather Decision Making, FAASafety


FAA Word Search

FAA Airplane Registry Lookup

FAA Aircraft Engine Search

FAA ADs Search

FAA Airmen Registry/License Lookup
(if you can't find somebody and you know they have a license, search by leaving the city and state blank)

Preliminary Accident and Incident Reports (FAA Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS))

Accident & Incident Data FAA(ATC audio)

NTSB AVN Incident DB Srch
NTSB's 24-hour Response Operations Center (ROC) direct line 844-373-9922

NTSB Avn Incident/Accident Report Main

NTSB Avn Accdnt Preliminary Mthly Rpts


FWD Slip KEY--Always bank INTO the wind

©INFOJET, Mike McCourt

VOR Nav (super basic)
If you are flying To the VOR, ensure the TO flag(triangular arrow pointing up) is displayed.
If you are flying From the VOR, ensure the Fr (from) flag (triangular arrow pointing down) is displayed.


Wed, 20 Oct 2021 10:16:29 -0700 (Local time )


Wed, 20 Oct 2021 10:16:29 -0700 (Zulu time (UTC) )


FAA Sunrise/Sunset calculator(38 Lttd, -121 Lgtd for Sacramento CA)

NOAA Sunrise/Sunset

NOAA Sunrise/Sunset-new

Google Sunrise/Sunset

Sunrise/Sunset Sacramento, CA (Time and

FAA IACRA (Integrated Airman Certification and Rating Application) main page-login Pilot WINGS training)

FAA, Special Rule for Model Aircraft(14 CFR 101)___ (If you do not meet the Model Aircraft flight rules/requirements, you must fly under the FAA's small UAS Rule (part 107)PART 107—SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (14 CFR 107)

What happened here? (snap roll, vmc stall/roll, cross-control stall?)(video is 1 min long)

Cessna 172 Maneuvers List (basic)

Pre Maneuver checklist
Clearing turns, emergency landing location, Flight following

Power off stall (approach to landing stall)
(Recovery: elevator fwd, full pwr, reduce 10 deg flaps, proc confirmed retract flaps)
Power on stall (departure stall)
(Recovery: elevator fwd, full pwr, climb at Vy)
(Stall speed, level flight, flaps UP-44 knots, flaps full down 30deg-33 knots)
(Maneuvering speed average = 90 knots)
Slow flight
Steep turns
Ground Reference maneuvers
Short field takeoff
Short field landing
Soft field takeoff (pull back on elevator, elevator fwd, airborne: fly in ground effect)
Soft field landing
No-flap landing (approach at 65 knots)